Basic doctoral student of the Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural Mechanization Engineers Bukhara branch, Uzbekistan, Bukhara
Transverse furrow making device between cotton rows
The article provides information on scientific research on the development of a device for the formation of transverse furrows between rows of cotton in the Bukhara region and its introduction into agricultural production. There is information on the creation of a transverse furrow making device equipped with working bodies that compact the soil between the unit and the cotton row.
В статье представлены сведения о научных исследованиях по разработке устройства для формирования поперечных борозд между рядами хлопчатника в Бухарской области и внедрении его в сельскохозяйственное производство. Имеются сведения о создании устройства для создания поперечных борозд с рабочими органами, уплотняющими почву между агрегатом и хлопковым рядом.
Keywords: Irrigated farming, transverse furrow, device, mineral fertilizer, mulching, soil compaction, frame, hydraulic cylinder, hanging mechanism.
Ключевые слова: Орошаемое земледелие, поперечная борозда, устройство, минеральные удобрения, мульчирование, уплотнение почвы, рама, гидроцилиндр, подвесной механизм.
The Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan has adopted a number of decrees on the rational use of water resources, land reclamation, preparation of irrigated lands for planting and sowing of agricultural crops. Irrigated agriculture is characterized by high yields of cotton. Depending on the relief of the crop area and the unevenness of the field, the cotton field requires irrigation in small areas using longitudinal and transverse furrows. As soon as we feed the cotton with mineral fertilizers, that is, in the second and third decade of May, the cotton fields are ready for irrigation. To prepare the field for irrigation, the cotton is deeply processed before watering, irrigation ditches are taken for water flow, and longitudinal and transverse furrows are formed in the field.
Figure 1. View of the field irrigated by removing the longitudinal (1) and transverse (2) furrows
The technological process of furrow irrigation of cotton fields in 2016 was not taken into account in the standard technological maps developed by the Agricultural Research and Production Center and the Uzbek Research Institute of Agricultural Economics for 2016-2020, but in some second and third climatic zones without this technological process there is no possibility of irrigation.
Therefore, this technological process is reflected in the standard and working technological maps, developed by the regional scientific centers and branches of research institutes, regional agricultural departments, approved by scientific and practical councils and introduced into production.
The recommendations of the Bukhara branch of the Uzbek Cotton Research Institute on agro-techniques for growing Bukhara-6, Bukhara-8 and Bukhara-102 medium-fiber cotton varieties for farms indicate the importance of soils in the process of irrigating cotton and its requirements.
It states that the following differences are observed in non-furrowed fields compared to furrowed ones:
1. Yields are 15-30% lower depending on the terrain and plains
2. Water consumption is 20-30% higher
3. The formation of saline particles in the unevenness of the field
4. Difficulty in controlling the direction of water in the field
5. Increase the duration of irrigation by 1.5-2 days.
There are several advantages to irrigating cotton by dividing it into pieces with furrowing:
1. Full and even irrigation of the area is provided
2. Water wastage is reduced
3. It will be convenient to control the water in the field
4. Sequential watering of shears ensures fast and high-quality execution of the technological process
In view of the above, it is necessary to pay special attention to ensuring the quantity and quality of transverse and longitudinal furrowing in irrigated fields of the third and some secondary areas. Mechanization is also a key task in the formation of longitudinal and transverse furrows before the first irrigation, and the demolition of transverse furrows in order to work between rows after irrigation. Till nowadays, these processes are carried out with full manual force. As a result, agro-technical processes are not carried out in a timely manner, leading to increased labor costs and economic costs.
As a solution to the problem, scientists of the Bukhara branch of TIIAME developed a device for forming a transverse furrow. Information substantiating the novelty of this technical solution was sent to the Intellectual Property Agency of the Republic of Uzbekistan. In order to increase work efficiency and reduce fuel consumption, it is possible to open irrigation ditches with simultaneous irrigators and create a transverse furrow in the designated area.
Figure 2. Transverse furrow forming device.
Frame 1, hanging equipment 2, furrow makers 3, hoisting hydraulic cylinders 4, movable beam 5, earth-moving bucket working equipment 6.
The device is mounted on a suspension on mowing tractors such as TTZ-80, T-28X4, MTZ-80. With the start of the tractor, irrigation ditches are created between the rows of cotton with the help of furrow makers mounted on the frame. As soon as irrigator or agronomist-specialist goes to the designated place of the field, the tractor-operator starts the cylinders through the distributor. As a result, the bucket-shaped working equipment, which is attached to the moving beam, is lowered to the ground under the influence of the cylinders and compacts the soil until it rises. As it reaches the set point, the working equipment is raised and the soil is compacted to form a transverse furrow in five rows. In the next transitions, this process is repeated, forming a side-by-side transverse furrow. It should be noted that attention and experience are required from the tractor operator, as the transverse furrow, which is formed, should not exceed 5-10 cm from the specified line. In the places marked in series along the length of the field, the working equipment is lowered and a transverse furrow is formed. For example, a 200-meter-long cotton field has to create about three to five transverse furrows, taking into account the terrain. As a result of mechanization of the process, it is possible to halve labor costs and reduce direct costs by 20%.
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