Information technologies in cluster systems: a competence approach

Информационные технологии в кластерных системах: компетентностный подход
Akhmedov B.
Akhmedov B. Information technologies in cluster systems: a competence approach // Universum: технические науки : электрон. научн. журн. 2021. 4(85). URL: (дата обращения: 07.05.2021).
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Cluster competence-based approach assumes that the main emphasis is not simply on the acquisition of a certain amount of knowledge and skills by the cadets, but on the formation of a systemic set of competencies. The development of the research includes the actions of the applicant, in the process of performing which he develops general and communicative competence


Кластерный компетентностный подход предполагает, что основной упор делается не просто на приобретение кадетами определенного объема знаний и навыков, а на формирование системного набора компетенций. В разработку исследования входят действия соискателя, в процессе выполнения которых у него развиваются общие и коммуникативные компетенции.


Keywords: cluster, information technology, communication competencies, knowledge and skills, interactive presentation.

Ключевые слова: кластер, информационные технологии, коммуникативные компетенции, знания и навыки, интерактивная презентация.



The main goal of military vocational education is the preparation of a competent, fluent in his profession and oriented in related fields of activity, ready for continuous professional growth, social and professional mobility of a specialist of the appropriate level and profile. Accordingly, the competence-based approach in military education is understood as a teaching method that is aimed at developing cadets' ability to solve professional problems of a certain class in accordance with the requirements for personal professional qualities: the ability to search, analyze, select and process the information received, transmit the necessary information; interact with people around, work in a group; own the mechanisms of planning, analysis, critical reflection, self-assessment of their own activities in non-standard situations or in conditions of uncertainty; possession of heuristic methods and techniques for solving problems.


The proficiency of teachers in the methodology of using information and communication technologies in teaching specific disciplines is one of the key factors in the success digitalizing of education. In teaching foreign languages, the use of information and communication technologies is of particular importance, since it allows not only to intensify the educational process through the use of a variety of educational and authentic electronic materials, but also to include real communication in the target language. Changes in the field of education have become significant factors in the qualitative reconstruction of the system of teaching foreign languages ​​in the framework of vocational education. The connection between professional activity and the learning process in higher education in the context of the competence-based approach shows that the real psychological mechanism for the development of a future specialist is the process of formation of professionally and subject-specific methods of mental activity, which act as the basic structures that form his professional consciousness. This concept means that a specialist with a higher education is a person who not only possesses knowledge (awareness) of the essence of his activity and, thanks to this, is systematically oriented in the invariant characteristics of the corresponding phenomena, but who, when mastering the professionally significant content of activity, forms a certain subject-specific attitude to the world, a specific “professional” position.

The competence-based approach, which is gaining more and more importance, both in the educational and in the professional environment, suggests that the main emphasis is not simply on the acquisition of a certain amount of knowledge and skills by students, but on the formation of a systemic set of competencies. The source of the formation of the competence-based approach is the objective requirements of the modern “knowledge economy”, in which more and more important and effective for the successful professional activity of future specialists are not isolated knowledge, but generalized knowledge and skills, manifested in awareness in the field of information technology, in the ability to solve life and professional problems, and others.

An important place among the modern requirements of the competence-based approach is occupied by a complex of knowledge related to social interaction and communication. In the works of domestic and foreign researchers, communicative competence is defined as the ability to adequately act in a variety of specific speech situations, that is, to show flexibility in communication, the ability to cooperate and overcome conflicts, the ability to work in a team. Competencies of the future commander include: knowledge in the relevant field of military equipment and weapons, systematic thinking, the ability to analyze the situation, skills in briefing and negotiating, managing subordinates, and so on.


Mastering a certain level of competence is considered as the ability to use and combine knowledge and skills depending on the changing requirements of a particular situation or problem. In other words, the level of competence is determined by the ability to cope with complex, unpredictable situations and changes. The development and implementation of so-called “competency profiles (or modules)” (describing the requirements for individual categories of employees: military engineers, senior executives, managers, administrative personnel, etc.) is an integral part of the performance management of many multinational enterprises. In whatever area university graduates work, they will not be able to avoid communication, even with a minimum number of people. This is not surprising, because our time is called the age of communication, which is facilitated by the development of technical capabilities and the acceleration of the pace of life. Realizing a competence-based approach, which involves not mastering individual knowledge and skills by students, but mastering them in a complex, general educational programs provide a list of general cultural and professional competencies intended for mastering by cadets. This list indicates, among other things, that the graduate must have a culture of thinking, the ability to generalize, analyze, collect information, set a goal and choose ways to achieve it, be able to logically correctly, reasonably and clearly build oral and written speech.

One of the forms that develop communicative competence is public communication, that is, speaking in front of an audience. The need to develop this skill is now more evident than ever. This was taught before, but in a rather truncated form, when the trainees presented messages and defended their abstracts. In Western universities, since the middle of the twentieth century, public communication has been a separate discipline and is confirmed by a diploma. Despite the fact that in different educational institutions it bears different names: "communicative efficiency", "rhetoric", "public speaking", "presentation skills", the main thing in it is that it provides training in various aspects of preparation and speaking in public, without which no specialist does in his activity. The main principle of conducting practical classes in a foreign language using presentations is the principle of unity and interpenetration of educational and parallel professional activities of future military specialists.

Few people will deny the influence of modern computer technologies on our lives. Virtual reality is no longer something unknown for a modern person, and the rapidly developing possibilities of interactive communication affect more and more facets of our life. And if earlier, presenting linguistic material, it was possible to limit ourselves to rather primitive options for tasks that almost any user can do based on basic programs, today in modern society it is considered bad form to distribute folders with printouts to participants in the educational process. The entry of Russian educational technologies into the world arena requires the use of tools corresponding to the world level, one of the elements of which is an interactive computer presentation.

At the moment, an interactive presentation can be not only a simple slideshow with text comments, but also a complex system of interconnected video materials, animation, three-dimensional graphics, actors, music and soundtrack, sound special effects, that is, all the possibilities of presenting material in the main ways (video, text, sound). Added to this is the ability to control the process. It should be noted that in our country recently there have been many recommendations in the press and on the Internet on how to prepare a presentation; there are also consulting companies that conduct relevant trainings. Designing a presentation is, first of all, the use of new information technologies, without which modern teaching a foreign language is impossible, since they directly motivate and intensify the activities of cadets in the process of mastering knowledge.


The introduction of materials for the preparation of presentations by the Department of Foreign Languages ​​of the Institute into the educational process is carried out gradually. Of course, cadets were always prepared to speak at scientific conferences and Olympiads, but this element entered the practice of teaching foreign languages ​​more broadly in the early 2000s. Then, relying on such requirements for a military specialist as the ability to write well, edit and have oratorical skills, some cadets were offered the defense of the FQP in a foreign language, and the cadets taking a course of additional linguistic training were offered the defense of their graduation work in a foreign language. The experience turned out to be successful, and now this activity is intensifying.

When teaching cadets to develop a presentation, special attention is paid to the following issues:

• drawing up

• drawing up a speech plan and choosing keywords; reflection in the speech of the relevance of the topic, goals and objectives, methodology, results obtained (if it is a research work), conclusions; conciseness of the statement, since 5-7 minutes are allotted for the presentation;

• the content of the presentation should not be read from the written text, much less read from the slide - cadets should strive to tell based on the outline and keywords;

• Power Point presentation should best represent the student's work, help the audience understand the material, it should be done in the same strict and concise form as the report itself, not overloaded with text and computer effects;

• the need to rehearse the presentation out loud, to be sure that the element of excitement, which is always present in one way or another in such a situation, does not interfere with the speaker;

• answers to questions that show what is called “mastery of the material” and “unprepared speech”, since the inability to navigate along the way and illiterate answers can spoil the whole impression of a well-prepared and rehearsed oral presentation;

• appropriate demeanor in front of the audience.

A presentation is a presentation of your abilities, your product in order to achieve the desired solution (action). It is important that the presentation is not just “showing yourself”, but also showing with the aim of influencing. When shaping the script for a future presentation, you must, first of all, understand your own goals. What exactly should the audience take as a result of the presentation? All preparation of the presentation is dedicated to achieving this goal. The development of the presentation includes the actions of the cadet, in the process of performing which he develops general and communicative language competence. They provide the solution of communicative tasks in various situations, taking into account various restrictions, and are implemented in activities and processes (actions) aimed at generating and perceiving texts, in connection with certain topics and areas of communication and using appropriate strategies.


Professionally executed presentations contribute to the maximum development of the general and communicative competencies of future servicemen, and practical exercises based on the requirements of a competency-based approach presuppose the unity of linguistic rules and actions. Language rules fix what is natural in the use of linguistic phenomena in speech and perform a subordinate, auxiliary function. The main action by which a foreign language is mastered is the process of communication, speech communication. In the process of communication, there is not only an exchange of opinions, feelings, but also the development of linguistic means, giving them a generalized character

The strategic map of the competence-based approach as the integration of values, knowledge and competencies into a single system is focused on cadets, teachers and employees of the academy. A foreign language is viewed as a means of developing communicative competence. This means, first of all, the ability to adequately clothe communicative goals and strategies for achieving them in linguistic forms, as well as the ability to use the norms of speech etiquette and social behavior in situations of intercultural communication.



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Информация об авторах

Senior teacher, Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Uzbekistan, Chirchik

старший преподаватель кафедры Информатика, Чирчикский государственный педагогический институт, Узбекистан, г. Чирчик

Журнал зарегистрирован Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор), регистрационный номер ЭЛ №ФС77-54434 от 17.06.2013
Учредитель журнала - ООО «МЦНО»
Главный редактор - Ахметов Сайранбек Махсутович.