CULTIVATION OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT AMARANTH AND ITS ENTOMOFAUNA

ВЫРАЩИВАНИЕ ЛЕКАРСТВЕННОГО РАСТЕНИЯ АМАРАНТ И ЕГО ЭНТОМОФАУНА
Tufliev N. Saidganieva S.
Цитировать:
Tufliev N., Saidganieva S. CULTIVATION OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT AMARANTH AND ITS ENTOMOFAUNA // Universum: химия и биология : электрон. научн. журн. 2021. 11(89). URL: https://7universum.com/ru/nature/archive/item/12429 (дата обращения: 01.03.2024).
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DOI - 10.32743/UniChem.2021.89.11.12429

 

ABSTRACT

Currently, the demand for medicinal plants on the world market is growing day by day. Work is also underway on the cultivation of medicinal plants in the conditions of the Andijan region, as well as work is underway to popularize them throughout the republic. This article provides information about pests and beneficial insects encountered in the process of growing the medicinal plant amaranth.

АННОТАЦИЯ

В настоящее время спрос на лекарственные растения на мировом рынке растет день ото дня. В условиях Андижанской области тоже ведется работа по выращиванию лекарственных растений, а также ведется работа по популяризации их по всей республике. В данной статье представлена информация о вредителях и полезных насекомых, встречающихся в процессе выращивания лекарственного растения амарант.

 

Keywords: Amaranth plant, agrotechnics, insects, pests, beet weevil, beet aphid, bedbugs.

Ключевые слова: Растение амарант, агротехника, насекомые, вредители, свекольный долгоносик, свекловичная тля, клопы.

 

In recent years, consistent reforms have been carried out in Uzbekistan in the field of protection of medicinal plants, rational use of natural resources, creation of plantations of medicinal and industrial plants and their processing. Similar reforms are being carried out at the Andijan Exhibition site of the Ministry of Innovation. Medicinal plants such as amaranth, stevia, and aloe, which occupy high positions in their medicinal properties, are grown at this exhibition site [1].

In recent years, a lot of attention has been paid to the amaranth plant in the republic, numerous experiments on its cultivation have been carried out. In the climatic conditions of the Andijan region, 19 species of the amaranth plant were tested as an example, of which 5 varieties were selected as promising [2].

The amaranth plant is a plant belonging to the amaranth family, which we popularly call gultojihuroz (comb-shaped flower). The homeland of the origin of this plant is South America, where it has been grown for seeds for 8000 years. China and India are considered to be the secondary homeland. Experiments on the cultivation of this plant have shown that, in addition to the fact that the cultivation of this plant is a source of high income for farmers, it can also be widely used in animal husbandry, poultry, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries [3,4].

The amaranth plant is considered a heat-loving and light-loving plant. This corresponds to our climatic conditions and shows the prospects for further development of this direction. For our experiment on growing amaranth in 2020, the fields for planting amaranth were plowed in autumn to a depth of 25-28 cm. The land before plowing was signed with organic and mineral fertilizers. In early spring, the ground was leveled and cleared of weeds. Amaranth sowing was carried out in stable warm weather (the second decade of March), when the soil warmed up to 10-12 degrees Celsius at the depth to which the seeds fell. The correct determination of the conditions and timing of plant planting is considered a factor that ensures the simultaneous germination of amaranth seeds. The establishment of the planting dates of amaranth, of course, is considered inextricably linked with what kind of weather is planned. It should be borne in mind that the soil into which the seed has fallen must contain, in addition to heat, a sufficient amount of moisture so that the amaranth can germinate. Since the amaranth seed is covered with a hard shell, it requires a sufficient amount of water. Therefore, if it is not planted in optimal time or the surface (up to 4 cm) soil layer has dried up, then germination of seedlings is not guaranteed in regions with a dry climate. The choice of methods of planting amaranth is one of the factors that positively affect the amount of harvest and its development. Amaranth, like other types of interstitial crops, is grown in aisles up to 60 cm wide. With the help of manual labor, such varieties of amaranth as Uzbekistan, Ulugnor, Marhamat and Andijan were sown, on average 1-2 kg of seeds per hectare. When sowing seeds in the soil, moistened, sifted sand, rotted manure, superphosphate and other products in a ratio of 1:10 or 1 were used as seed filler:5. After planting the plant, the earth was loosened, as well as cleaning from weeds. We know that in the spring months, hardenings form on any soil, which makes it difficult for amaranth seedlings to appear and develop. Therefore, 4-6 days after planting, the hardenings were softened with light softeners [5].

For the first 2-3 weeks after the emergence of amaranth seedlings on the surface, the work was focused on removing weeds, loosening row spacing and weeding. When the plants reached a height of 10-15 cm, in order to accelerate their development, along with work in the aisles, 40 kg of nitrogen and 20 kg of potash fertilizers were applied per hectare, and cultivation was carried out at a depth of 5-6 cm. When the plant reached a height of 30-35 cm, a second fertilization was carried out with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers of 30 kg per hectare. Top dressing of the plant was necessarily carried out before watering. After the plant was fed and watered, its growth and development accelerated.

During the growing of the amaranth plant from March to June, we witnessed the spread of harmful and beneficial species of entomofauna of this plant among them. In the period from the moment of planting the amaranth plant and before the appearance of its first 3-4 petals, we met 5-6 Pyrrhocoris apterus bugs per 1 m2. After our plant became 10-15 cm tall, we practically did not meet these insects at experimental sites. We witnessed how the amaranth plant was infected with pest parasites as soon as it released 3-4 leaves. At our experimental site, we met crickets and beet weevils and observed that these pests cause serious harm to the amaranth plant. And since May, infection of the amaranth plant with beet aphids has been recorded (Fig.1).

 

Figure 1. Insects found on the amaranth plant and their harm:

a- Pyrrhocoris apterus bug; b-c- amaranth plant infected with beet aphids; d-f amaranth leaf infected with gnawing pests

 

Beet aphids began to infect the plant at the time of the release of 8-10 leaves on the stem of the amaranth plant. This usually happens during the hot and dry season in hot regions. The infection of the amaranth plant with aphids in the conditions of the Andijan region occurred in May and June. The pest damaged the lower sides of the leaves and the growth points of the plant. So, aphids accumulate on the tops of the main and lateral shoots, which deform and dry up with a large number of pests. The quality of seeds of damaged plants is reduced, and this decrease in quality is 35%. When aphids propagate on fodder varieties, crop losses can reach 55%.

Beet aphid is an insect 2 mm long with a hard, convex, shiny body, the color of which depends on the type of aphid, which ranges from dark green or light brown to black. Beet aphids overwinter in the egg phase. Aphids begin to wake up in the spring, when the plants develop buds. Wingless forms of the first aphids appear, and they lay eggs of the first generation on nearby plants. From these eggs, a winged aphid appears, which spreads to the surrounding plants. Before the appearance of winged aphids of the first generation, warm weather comes, which promotes further reproduction. In summer, 12-15 days are enough for the development of a full-fledged winged offspring. During the period when the average annual air temperatures are quite hot, aphids develop, giving 10-15 generations.

All species of aphids feed on amaranth in the same way. They suck the cellular juice from the cells of the leaves and stems, as a result of which the leaves curl along the central vein, and the stem weakens, loses strength and elasticity and shrinks under the influence of numerous pests. It is noted that they can lead to the death of the plant if a certain system of combating them is not applied (Table 1).

Table 1.

Types of pests and the degree of their occurrence in our experimental area of amaranth cultivation (Andijan region, Marhamat district, Andijan Experimental Exhibition Area of the Ministry of Innovation 2019-2020)

Type of entomophage

Latin name

Family

Order

Degree of occurrence

  1.  

Beet aphids

Aphis fabae

Aphididae

 

Homoptera

 

+++

2.

Beet flea

Chaetocnema

Chrysomelidae

Coleoptera

 

+++

3.

Beet weevil

Aspropartenis punctiventris

Curculionidae

Coleoptera

 

++

4.

Steppe (pasture) moth

Loxostege sticticalis

Pyraustidae

Lepidoptera

++

5.

Field crickets

Gryllus campestris

Gryllidae

Orthoptera

++

6.

Green Grasshopper

 

Tettigonia viridissima

Tettigonioidea

Orthoptera

++

7.

Short - horned grasshoppers

Calliptamus barbarys

Acridoidae

Orthoptera

++

Note: +++ a lot, ++ average, ++ rare.

 

During our scientific experiment, it was found that by August the amaranth plant was infected with locusts, beet fleas in small quantities, as well as beet weevil.

In conclusion, we can say that we have witnessed that these five pests are currently the most harmful species that cause damage to the amaranth plant in Uzbekistan. At the same time, it was noted that beet fleas, beet aphids were more common than other pests in our experimental field. It was found that parasites of pests belonging to the family Gryllidae, infecting the plant, cause less damage than the aforementioned pests.

It should also be noted that in our experimental field there was a high concentration of entomophages of these pests - golden-eyed, 7-point ladybug and ground beetles. Timely high-quality implementation of agrotechnical measures and biological control of these pests will create conditions for obtaining an environmentally friendly, rich harvest of medicinal amaranth and there will be no need for the use of chemicals. Then we will be able to preserve the entomophages found in nature.

 

References:

  1. M. Amanova., U. Khurramov., B. Rustamov. "Charming amaranth flower" website of the Ministry of Agriculture of Uzbekistan.
  2. SH.Ergashev "Amaranth - the opening of the XXI century "Narodnoe slovo" 10.07.2017
  3. National Academy of Sciences. Amaranth: modern perspectives of ancient culture. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 1984
  4. Saidganieva Sh.T., Tufliev N.X. Biological properties of the amaranth plant and its importance in agriculture. Bulletin of Agrarian Science 1(85)2021
  5. Saidganieva, S. T. Q. (2021). Andijon viloyati sharoitida dorivor amarant o’simligini yetishtirish texnologiyasi. Science and Education2(5), 111-115.
  6. Яқубова, З. А. (2020). РОЛЬ СОИ В НАРОДНОМ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕ И БОРЬБА С ЕЕ СОСУЩИМИ ВРЕДИТЕЛЯМИ. Главный редактор19.
  7. Saidganieva, S. T. Q., & Yuldasheva, S. N. Q. (2020). Measures against the damage of the insects of the nightshades family in the Soybean plant. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research (AJMR)9(8), 28-30.
  8. Saidganieva Sh.T., Tufliev N.X "Types of the main pests of the amaranth plant and the degree of their occurrence" international scientific and practical conference on "Innovative technologies of plant protection in food safety" 2021 (2) from 240.
Информация об авторах

Professor of Tashkent State Agrarian University, Uzbekistan, Tashkent

профессор Ташкентского государственного аграрного университета, Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

Doctoral student of the Andijan Institute of Agriculture and Agrotechnologies, Uzbekistan, Andijan

докторант Андижанского института сельского хозяйства и агротехнологий, Узбекистан. г. Андижан

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