EMERGENCIES RELATED TO STRONG TOXIC SUBSTANCES. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR RESCUE OPERATIONS

ЧРЕЗВЫЧАЙНЫЕ СИТУАЦИИ, СВЯЗАННЫЕ С СИЛЬНЫМИ ТОКСИЧНЫМИ ВЕЩЕСТВАМИ. ТРЕБОВАНИЯ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ ПРИ ПРОВЕДЕНИИ СПАСАТЕЛЬНЫХ ОПЕРАЦИЙ
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Isoqav A.Q., Kholdorov A.R., Alimov S.A. EMERGENCIES RELATED TO STRONG TOXIC SUBSTANCES. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR RESCUE OPERATIONS // Universum: технические науки : электрон. научн. журн. 2023. 3(108). URL: https://7universum.com/ru/tech/archive/item/15150 (дата обращения: 03.03.2024).
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DOI - 10.32743/UniTech.2023.108.3.15150

 

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on the classification of highly toxic substances, their grouping, physico-chemical properties and characteristics.

АННОТАЦИЯ

Данная статья посвящена классификации высокотоксичных веществ, их группировке, физико-химическим свойствам и характеристикам.

 

Keywords: chemical hazardous substance, potent toxic substance, mass damage, aggregate state, hydrolysis, density, physical property, chemical property.

Ключевые слова: химически опасное вещество, сильнодействующее ядовитое вещество, массовое поражение, агрегатное состояние, гидролиз, плотность, физическое свойство, химическое свойство.

          

Chemical protection is a set of measures aimed at preventing or reducing the harmful effects of strongly acting toxic substances on the population, civil defense forces and economic objects [1].

A chemical accident is a violation of technological processes in production, damage to pipelines, tanks, chemical storage warehouses, and vehicles transporting chemical toxic substances, leading to the release of chemical hazardous substances (poisonous substances with a strong effect) into the atmosphere in quantities that pose a threat to human life and health, the biosphere. [1].

Chemical accidents often occur in chemical, oil refining, industrial, papermaking, meat-dairy, food, metallurgical, mining and other industries. Due to the presence of large reserves of chemically dangerous substances such as chlorine, ammonia, phosgene, cyanic acid, sulfur oxides, these facilities are a source of chemical accidents [3].

Accidents may occur in these facilities due to the following factors [ 4]:

  • due to natural disasters (earthquake, flood, etc.);
  • due to errors in the design or construction of facilities;
  • wear and tear of production tools used for a long time, breakdown;
  • increased use, storage and transportation of highly toxic substances;
  • improper storage of aggressive substances (explosive, highly flammable toxic substances) and violation of the rules for its use;
  • low labor discipline in the enterprise, insufficient qualifications of specialists and workers;
  • insufficient control of the state of chemically hazardous facilities;
  • that imported technologies do not fully meet security requirements;
  • non-compliance with technical safety rules when working with substances and storing them.

The main part of highly toxic substances is transported to enterprises by road transport and railway transport . In the process of transportation, an accident may occur due to the following factors, as a result of which strong toxic substances will spread into the environment, mass poisoning of people and animals, as well as the death of flora.

a) accidents in railway transport can be caused by derailment of trains, collision with each other, fire and explosion of substances transported in wagons, natural disasters [2];

b) accidents in automobile transport can be caused by violation of road rules, technical malfunction of the automobile, speed exceeding the specified norm, lack of sufficient qualifications of the automobile driver, drunken driving, non-observance of the rules for transportation of dangerous goods during traffic [4].

Accidents occur due to the above-mentioned factors, resulting in human injuries and property damage. After the elimination of the accident, depending on the nature of the toxic substance, the people who served at the accident site and remained in the poisoned area for a certain period of time are under medical supervision.

Action during a chemical accident [3]. "Straight ­up, everyone!" when a signal is given, it is necessary to use a radio receiver and a television to receive accurate information about the accident and recommendations for correct actions.

"Straight ­up, everyone!"

"Attention! We are speaking from the headquarters of Civil Protection, Citizens! An accident occurred at the Chirchik chemical plant due to the spillage of a highly toxic substance-ammonia. Poisoned air is spreading towards the city of Tashkent. The area of chemical poisoning includes the surrounding enterprises and residential areas (names of the enterprise, residential areas of the neighborhood are indicated) . Workers in the production sectors close to the chemical enterprise, residents of the neighborhoods should leave their homes and workplaces in a safe state (turn off gas, water, electricity) and prepare for evacuation to Tashkent. Enterprises far from the chemical enterprise, residents of neighborhoods (names will be indicated) should ensure additional hermeticity in their workplaces and houses. Tell your neighbors what you heard!"

 

It is necessary to close the windows, turn off the electricity and gas networks, put on rubber boots, a cloak, take documents, necessary clothes, three days' worth of food, warn the neighbors, and move away from the affected area in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the wind without panicking. In this case, go to a distance of at least 1.5 km, use a gas mask to protect the respiratory tract, if it is not available, use a cotton swab soaked in a 2-5% soda solution (to avoid chlorine), a 2% solution of lemon or acetic acid (to avoid ammonia). it is also possible to use a gauze bandage or a homemade protective device made of cloth.

When it is not possible to leave the toxic area, it is necessary to tightly close doors, windows, ventilation holes and chimneys. If they have cracks, they should be sealed with paper or tape. Basements, semi-basements and first floors of buildings should not be covered.

In the case of accidents related to KTZM on railways and highways, the danger zone is determined within a radius of 200 meters from the accident site. Approaching and entering this area is strictly prohibited.

Action after a chemical accident [8]. If there is a suspicion of poisoning from KTZM, it is necessary to put aside all physical activities, drink a lot of drinks (tea, milk) and consult a doctor immediately. Entry to the building is allowed only after a control check on the presence of KTZM. If a person is directly exposed to KTZM, the first step is to take a shower. Clothes should be washed, if it is not possible to wash them, throw them away. Rooms should be cleaned frequently with a damp cloth. It is recommended not to drink water from water pipes (wells), not to eat garden crops and fruits, as well as meat of livestock and birds slaughtered after a chemical accident until they have been officially determined to be safe.

Elimination of the consequences of the accident [7]. Organization of emergency-rescue and other emergency work, timely and high-quality reconnaissance work are important in eliminating the consequences of accidents and disasters at facilities related to highly toxic substances . Exploration work is carried out in the direction of the wind. Water curtains are created to prevent the gases from dispersing into the environment, and thus precipitation and neutralization of gases are carried out. The main part of KTZM neutralization (degassing) is carried out by sprinkling solutions with the help of special mechanisms and machines. The casualty collection point should be located upwind of the KTZM spill and must be in an area free of KTZM vapors.

Degassing is the destruction (decomposition or neutralization) of harmful gases or toxic substances in coal mines, affected areas, clothing, food, weapons, vehicles, buildings, etc., using special degassing agents [7].

 

References:

  1. Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated August 20, 1999 "On protection of population and territories from natural and man-made emergency situations" .
  2. Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated September 28, 2006 "On industrial safety of hazardous production facilities".
  3. Abidova F.A., Abidov A.B. "Characteristics of potent toxic substances". - UzR FVV FMI: 2013. - 530 p.
  4. Sevastyuk T.V. "Silnodeystvuyushchie yadovytie veshchestva i zashchita ot nix". - M.: Voenizdat, 1989.
  5. Turagalov T.J., Ilyasova Z.F. "Emergencies". (short Russian-Uzbek encyclopedic annotated dictionary). - T.: FMI. 2016 - 220 p.
  6. Sharipov A.Kh. "Storage of highly toxic substances in a chemically hazardous facility and in rail transport", methodical guide. Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineers, 2010. - 23b.
  7. Kxusniddin Muxitdinovich Akramov, Shokhrukh Bakhodirjonovich Mamadboev. Fire resistant properties of construction structure. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research (AJMR). Volume.9. Vo 5. 415-419 pp.
  8. NA Botirjonovich, MS Bahodirjonovich A Combined Method of Increase of Fluidity of High-viscous Local Oil
Информация об авторах

Senior teacher of the Life Safety Training Center, Namangan regional Emergency department, Republic of Uzbekistan, Namangan

старший преподаватель Центра обучения безопасности жизнедеятельности, Управление по чрезвычайным ситуациям Наманганской области, Республика Узбекистан, г. Наманган

Senior teacher of the Life Safety Training Center, Namangan regional Emergency department, Republic of Uzbekistan, Namangan

старший преподаватель Центра обучения безопасности жизнедеятельности, Управление по чрезвычайным ситуациям Наманганской области, Республика Узбекистан, г. Наманган

Senior teacher of the Life Safety Training Center, Namangan regional Emergency department, Republic of Uzbekistan, Namangan

старший преподаватель Центра обучения безопасности жизнедеятельности, Управление по чрезвычайным ситуациям Наманганской области, Республика Узбекистан, г. Наманган

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