ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF LOCOMOTIVES UNDER OPERATION CONDITIONS

ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ ЛОКОМОТИВОВ В УСЛОВИЯХ ЭКСПЛУАТАЦИИ
Цитировать:
ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF LOCOMOTIVES UNDER OPERATION CONDITIONS // Universum: технические науки : электрон. научн. журн. Ablyalimov O.S. [и др.]. 2022. 9(102). URL: https://7universum.com/ru/tech/archive/item/14287 (дата обращения: 06.12.2022).
Прочитать статью:

 

ABSTRACT

The economic indicators of the transportation work of locomotives in operation are proposed, which can be used to analyze and evaluate the efficiency of locomotives on various sections of railways.

АННОТАЦИЯ

Предложены экономические показатели перевозочной работы локомотивов в эксплуатации, которые можно использовать для анализа и оценки эффективности локомотивов на различных участках железных дорог.

 

Keywords: economic indicators, cost, indicator, performance, locomotive, transportation work, coefficient.

Ключевые слова: экономические показатели, себестоимость, показатель, производительность, локомотив, перевозочная работа, коэффициент.

 

Economic indicators in the form of a monetary unit are generalizing parameters for the analysis and evaluation of the performance of locomotives in the conditions of operational activities of railways.

Calculations of the cost of conditional t km gross reflect the actual energy consumption and the mechanical work performed, which makes it possible to more specifically and purposefully find ways to reduce the cost of rail transportation and increase the efficiency of using locomotives in the process of organizing transportation work. The cash productivity indicator is a criterion for the use of locomotives, the calculations of which are related to the determination of the cost of funds for a trip, or for any period of operation (usually taking into account annual present costs for calculations).

The costs of moving a train on the Эх section can be divided into time-dependent (time) Эхв and proportional to energy consumption (energy) Эхк. In addition to these components, there is also a third component of costs associated with the volume of transportation train work and the costs of technical inspection of cars, as well as depreciation of ballast, sleepers, protection of the track and structures, and others, which we will designate Эхн.

Thus, the cost per train section will be

Эх = Эхк + Эхв + Эхн                                                      (1)

In turn, we express all the terms Эx of equality (1) as follows

Эхк  = lтэк·E + j·Aк + Мав·Ас                                                (2)

Эхв = aэ·j·gх·t + lh·t                                                     (3)

Эхн = [lns·m + lтк·(P0 + Q)]·S                                              (4)

where  lтэк - the cost of energy, including equipment costs, rub./t or rub. / kW-h; j, Мав – expenditure rates for the repair of power units of the locomotive proportional to its mechanical work Ak and for the repair of running parts of the rolling stock and the superstructure of the track, proportional to the mechanical work of harmful resistance forces Ac, rub./kgskm; t is the travel (movement) time of the train on the section, h; gх - energy consumption for service needs t/h or kW-h/h; ae - conversion factor of consumed energy into equivalent tangential work; lh = lмн+lмх+lNh+lnн m+lх - the total cost rate of the cost of a train hour, rub./h; lмн - expenditure rate for the maintenance of the locomotive, rub./h; lмх - expenditure rate of locomotive crews, rub./brigade-h; lNh - expenditure rate of train crews, rub./brigade-h; lnн - the cost rate for the wagon - axle-hour, rub./car. axles -h; m is the number (number) of axles in the train, axles; lx is the cost of energy consumed per hour for service needs, rub./t or rub./kW-h; lns - cost rate for the maintenance of wagons, rub./car. axles -km; lтк - expenditure rate per 1 tkm gross, rub./tkm gross; S is the distance traveled by the train, km.

For cases of train movement on the section, when Vн = Vк = 0, the value Аc of the mechanical work of harmful resistance forces will be

Ас = Aк – (Р0 + Q)·Н0                                                           (5)

where  H0 is the excess of the end station over the initial station, m.

From (5) it can be seen that Ac in a particular section will differ from Ak by a constant value, therefore, the costs proportional to Ac will be also proportional to Ak.

Эхк, Эхв and Эхн values can be calculated using data about spending rates [3] and experience on the road.

For a comprehensive analysis of the use of locomotives, one should use the value of the annual reduced national economic costs Эг, the general procedure for determining which is given in [3,4].The value of Эг can be expressed as follows

Эг = (++)·365·nс1234567                                (6)

where  Эсв, Эсэн - costs during stops at intermediate stations, proportional to the time of energy consumption for the period of stops, rub./train section;

nс - number of trains per day for the considered type of work on the direction, trains/day;

Э1 - the share of annual deductions for capital costs for rolling stock with an appropriate payback period, rub./year;

Э2, Э3 - the share of annual deductions for the renovation of locomotives and wagons, rub./year;

Э4 - reduced costs associated with the cost of cargo on wheels, the speed of its delivery and the standard payback period of rubles / year;

Э5 - expenses associated with the accumulation of cars at the train formation station, rub./year;

Э6 - expenses associated with the reserve mileage of locomotives in the direction under consideration, rub./year;

Э7 - costs associated with the maintenance of the station economy, taken proportional to the number of cars at the station, rub./year.

The necessary recommendations on the terms listed above are given in [3,4].

The value of Эг can also be represented by the following sum

Эг = Эгк + Эгв + Эгн                                                      (7)

where  Эгк·365·ns·Эхк - part of the annual reduced national - economic costs proportional to energy consumption and mechanical work, rub. / year;

Эгв = (Эхв + Эв + Ээн)·365·nc + Э1 + Э2 + Э3 + Э4 - part of the annual reduced national and economic costs proportional to the time spent by the train on the section and the turnover of the locomotive, rubles / year;

Эгн = 365·ns·Эхн567 – part independent of energy consumption and time, rub./year.

The reduced monetary productivity of locomotives when performing a given volume of transportation will be

γп =  (conditional tkm gross)/ruble                                 (8)

where  ∑A''г is the total amount of mechanical work used to move trains per year, kgcm;

Эк is the annual present share of capital investments in the section (excluding rolling stock) to improve working conditions or expand the volume of rail traffic, rub./year.

In order to identify the influence of the dependence of the components on the conditions of the transportation operation of locomotives, calculations were carried out on the computer using a special program, in which the amount of annual costs for the movement of trains on the section was also determined according to the formula

 = 365·nc·Эх, rub./year                                                  (9)

In table. 2.1 [1] shows the distribution of components for some sections of the Central Asian (now Uzbek and Turkmen) railways.

According to the data analysis of the specified table. 2.1 it can be seen that the costs of moving trains are: for loaded trains 73 - 77 percent, and for empty trains they are reduced to 60 percent, for passenger trains this share is 74 - 75 percent.

Thus, the main part of the given annual national economic transportation costs are the costs of moving trains, and therefore, the study of factors affecting these costs is especially important. Note that the value of Эгx changes with changes in operating conditions approximately in the same proportions as the value of Эг.

Having the values of mechanical work, the forces acting on the train and the value of the corresponding costs that are associated with the process of transportation work of locomotives, it is possible to determine the indicators of the use of locomotives. Such indicators are performance indicators of locomotives ( and γп) [2] and economic efficiency indicators of locomotives' transportation operation, which characterize the results of locomotives' work in fulfilling a given cargo flow.

With a known ratio of the net weight Qн of the cargo to the gross weight Q of the train, that is . It is proposed to evaluate the efficiency of locomotives transportation work on the basis of running efficiency indicators εх of locomotives transportation work, taking into account the costs of moving the train on the site, as well as indicators of the reduced efficiency εп, taking into account the annual reduced national economic costs, that is:

εх =  kop / (10 conventional tkm net)                                   (10)

εп =  kop / (10 conventional tkm net)                                  (11)

Instead of these expressions, you can also use εх =  and εх = , where αn is the conversion factor for operating tkm net in conditional [5] ton-kilometers.

The indicators εх and εп will reflect the influence of all factors of the operating

conditions on the sections, which will make it possible to obtain comparable data on the efficiency of the use of locomotives for any cases.

Thus, the considered (proposed) economic indicators of the efficiency of locomotives transportation work together with power and energy indicators [2,6] are recommended for practical use in the locomotive economy of railways, since they are the most complete criteria for assessing the perfection of the use of diesel and electric traction locomotives in operation in the implementation of rail transportation of goods and passengers.

 

Reference:

  1. Ablyalimov O. S. Optimization of transportation work of locomotives: questions of theory, methods, calculations, results [Text] / Monograph. - "Complex Print nashriyoti", 2020. - 488 p.
  2. Ablyalimov O. S. Indicators of the efficiency of the use of locomotives in operating conditions [Text] / O. S. Ablyalimov // Universum: technical sciences: electron. scientific magazine 2020. No. 9 (78). pp. 91-94. DOI: 10.32743/UniTech.2020.78.9-1.
  3. Lugovoi P. A. Technical and economic calculations for the reconstruction of railways [Text] / P. A. Lugovoi, L. G. Tsypin // Scientific and practical edition. – M.: Transzheldorizdat, 1963. – 250 p.
  4. Tikhonov K. K. Technical and economic calculations in the operation of railways [Text] / K. K. Tikhonov // Monograph. – M.: Izd-vo MPS, 1962. – 252 p.
  5. Tolkachev A. V. Indicators of comparative performance of locomotives [Text] / A. V. Tolkachev // Tr. TashIIT, vol. 14 / Tashkent in-t. eng. railway transport. - Tashkent, 1960. - S. 63 - 71.
  6. Tolkachev A. V. Relative indicators of the use of locomotives [Text] / A. V. Tolkachev // VNIIZhT Bulletin / All-Union Scientific Research. in-t. railway transport. - M .: Transzheldorizdat, 1963, No. 3. - S. 73 - 79.
Информация об авторах

Candidate of Technical Sciences, professor, professor of the chair «Loсomotives and locomotive economy», Tashkent state transpоrt university, Uzbekistan, Tashkent

канд. техн. наук, профессор, профессор кафедры «Локомотивы и локомотивное хозяйство» Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет, Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

Doctor of Technical Sciences, Head of the chair«Loсomotives and locomotive еconomy» Tashkent state transpоrt university, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

д-р техн. наук, заведующий кафедрой «Локомотивы и локомотивное хозяйство» Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет, Республика Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

Master, аssistant of the chair«Loсomotives and locomotive еconomy» Tashkent state transpоrt university, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

магистр, ассистент кафедры «Локомотивы и локомотивное хозяйство» Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет, Республика Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

Candidate of Technical Sciences, аssistant professor of the chair «Materials science and mechanical engineering» Tashkent state transpоrt university, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

канд. техн. наук, доцент кафедры «Материаловедение и машиностроение» Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет, Республика Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

Senior lecturer of the chair«Loсomotives and locomotive еconomy» Tashkent state transpоrt university, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

ст. преподаватель кафедры «Локомотивы и локомотивное хозяйство» Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет, Республика Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

Master, аssistant of the chair«Loсomotives and locomotive еconomy» Tashkent state transpоrt university, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

магистр, ассистент кафедры «Локомотивы и локомотивное хозяйство» Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет, Республика Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

Журнал зарегистрирован Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор), регистрационный номер ЭЛ №ФС77-54434 от 17.06.2013
Учредитель журнала - ООО «МЦНО»
Главный редактор - Ахметов Сайранбек Махсутович.
Top