Candidate of Technical Sciences, professor, professor of the chair «Loсomotives and locomotive economy», Tashkent state transpоrt university, Uzbekistan, Tashkent
ALGORITHM FOR SUBSTANTIATION OF DYNAMICS OF CHANGE WEIGHTS AND NUMBER OF AXLES OF COMPOSITIONS OF TRAIN
The choice of the gradations of the dynamics of changes in the weight and the number of axles of the trains, adopted when solving the optimization problem for the transportation work of locomotives for a given time of the train running is indicated.
Обозначен выбор градаций динамики изменения веса и числа осей составов, принятых при решении задачи оптимизации для перевозочной работы локомотивов при заданном времени хода поезда по перегонам.
Keywords: payoff parameter, work option, control mode, gradation, travel time, selection, composition, train.
Ключевые слова: параметр выигрыша, вариант работы, режим управления, градация, время хода, выбор, состав, поезд.
Based on the theory of optimal control, it is possible to solve a number of important practical optimization problems in order to achieve high efficiency of the transportation work of locomotives in certain specific conditions of the operational activities of railways, including Uzbek ones.
Some examples of solving specific practical problems confirm the practical value of the theoretical conclusions of works [1-4].
In practical conditions, one has to deal with problems that are solved in order to optimize the control mode (all the coordinates of the material and technical base of the Mб and the organization of the work of the Oр are known), optimization of the control mode and running time trains on hauls (all coordinates of the material and technical base of the Mб and the organization of the work of the Oр are known, with the exception of the mentioned time ), as well as optimization , that is, individual coordinates of the material and technical base Mб and organization of work Op with appropriate optimization of the control mode Pт and travel time tп of the train along the hauls. Considering all of the above, we can outline the following specific tasks that are expedient in practical conditions for optimizing the transportation work of locomotives:
1. The choice of optimal modes, both for individual specific trips, and for their family of one or another variant of VR operation. Received recommendations for choosing the optimal control mode should be expressed depending on specific quantities Q, m, t, z (Q – weight or mass of the composition, m – number of axles in the composition, t – train running time, z – number of train stops). Characteristic here is the presence of a given travel time . trains on hauls and the need to have an optimal control mode for any combination of weight (mass) Q of the train and the number (number) of axles m in the train.
2. Choosing the optimal control mode and optimal travel time trains on hauls for the conditions of one or another variant of VR operation. A feature of this optimization problem is the need to identify the optimal travel time trains on hauls for the most typical (average) conditions for organizing the work of the Op of each variant of the work of VR. The resulting travel time for hauls is then used to draw up and develop a train schedule.
3. Development of energy consumption standards for trips of the VR operation option. Obviously, differentiated norms should be expressed by dependencies that take into account the influence of all factors on energy consumption, including the train driving mode, which should be the most profitable. The solution of this optimization problem is connected with finding a technically justified energy consumption for all possible options for changing the coordinates of the organization of work Op. The issues of regulation of energy consumption by diesel and electric traction locomotives are of paramount importance for railway transport and are considered in [5-7 and others].
4. Similar to the rationing of energy consumption, the question of the rationing of funds for trains, which is still put as a proposal for further research. For trips of the BP work option, you can set the rate of expenditure of funds for movement and compare it with the actual expenses determined from the reporting data, according to the documents. For each trip of the VR operation option, you can calculate the cost rate of funds, and then take into account the actual costs, which will facilitate more accurate analyzes of the cost of funds and facilitate the solution of the optimization problem to improve the efficiency of the transportation work of locomotives. This kind of rationing can be carried out for regional railway junctions (NOD) and locomotive depots.
5. The choice of the optimal elements of the material and technical base of the Mб and the organization of the work of the Op, with the appropriate selected optimal values (values) and , is the most complex practical optimization problem, the solution of which will allow choosing the most advantageous series of locomotives, type of cars, section track profile, speed limit, etc. Characteristic for this kind of optimization problems will be the changing above-mentioned elements Mб, Op and
, from which it is necessary to identify the appropriate, optimal coordinates of the material and technical base Mб* and the organization of work and optimal control modes.
For all cases of optimization given above, the solutions include calculations to optimize the trip for certain specific coordinates of the material and technical base of the Mb and the organization of the work of the Op.
Next, consider the question concerning the choice of gradations of the dynamics of changes in the weight (mass) and the number (quantity) of the axes of the trains.
In most cases, solving problems of optimizing the transportation work of locomotives has to deal with a family of trips. At the same time, performing full traction and energy calculations (TER) with optimization for each trip is inexpedient, as mentioned above. In addition, provide recommendations on management modes for each combination of Q, m, t, z, is also practically impossible. All this raises the question of choosing the appropriate gradations of the dynamics of changes in weight (mass) and the number of axles of trains in order to facilitate the practical solution of the problem.
We present a variant of the choice of gradations adopted by the authors when solving the problem of choosing Р*т for the variant of the operation of the VR, bearing in mind the fairly stable values of the estimated travel time haul trains.
The value at a given travel time trains on hauls are calculated according to the analytical dependence (1) for different values of Q and m, and we build the dependence , shown in fig. 1.
Recommendations for choosing the optimal control mode should cover all possible cases of combinations of Q and m values of this variant of BP operation, while we have , that is, given according to the train schedule. For the accepted variant of the BP operation, the entire zone (range of change) of the values is divided by gradations, based on the condition of accepting approximately constant, the total total resistance to movement train, the value of which will be
Therefore, choosing the oscillation limit , it is possible to outline gradations of change in the weight (mass) Q and the number of axles m of the composition for a given variant of the VR operation, within which we will approximately consider it possible to adopt the average optimal control mode .
Figure 1. To the choice of gradations of weight (mass) of trains with
Thus, for each combination of Q and m values there will be its own optimal control mode , which will greatly facilitate the choice of modes for all possible cases of train driving on sections. For each gradation, specific data on the positions of the optimal control mode are found on the basis of traction and energy calculations with optimization on electronic computers (computers).
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