Candidate of Technical Sciences, Head of Mining Electromechanics Department Navoi State Mining Technological University, Republic of Uzbekistan, Navoi
RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENT OF THE OPERATIONAL MANUFACTURABILITY OF ROAD TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT USING MODERN ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC AND MACHINE CONTROL SYSTEMS
In the given article information and diagnostic systems of dumpers operating in mining companies are considered. There is analysis of on-board diagnostic and control systems of main dump trucks manufacturers (Caterpillar, Komatsu, Tirex, BelAZ) and their purpose. Ways of diagnostics are given, which allows qualitatively operate motor transport of mining enterprises.
В данной статье рассмотрены информационно-диагностические системы автосамосвалов эксплуатирующийся в горных предприятиях. Произведен анализ бортовых систем диагностики и контроля основных производителей автосамосвалов (Caterpillar, Komatsu, Tirex, БелАЗ) и их назначения. Приведены способы диагностики, которые позволяют качественно эксплуатировать автотранспорт горных предприятий.
Keywords: dump truck, diagnostics, system, exploitation, technical condition.
Ключевые слова: автосамосвал, диагностика, система, эксплуатация, техническое состояние.
In the course of operation, mining transport equipment interacts with the rock mass, and its elements interact with each other. This interaction causes disturbance of parts, units, mechanisms, their mutual movements, friction, heating, chemical transformation and change during operation of physical quantities and design parameters: dimensions, mutual arrangement of parts, clearances, electrical and other quantities. Technical condition of motor transport equipment or its separate mechanism, unit, component is determined by a set of changing properties characterised by current values of design parameters.
The possibility of direct change of design parameters without partial or complete disassembly of most mechanisms is limited. For these objects at definition of a technical condition indirect sizes or the so-called diagnostic parameters which are connected to design parameters and give this or that information about them are used [1,2]. For example, the technical condition of body lifting mechanisms, transmission, hydraulic system can be judged by changes in engine power, content of wear products in the gearbox oil.
In the course of vehicle operation, the parameters of its technical condition change from initial or nominal values to limit values. The main prerequisite for efficiency is the failure-free operation of all equipment. Efficiency also depends to a large extent on the serviceability and efficiency of parts, components and mechanisms of the dump truck. Consequently, during all service life it is necessary to estimate their technical condition and to perform a complex of works on maintenance of the given level of quality of the dump truck [4,7].
Systems of diagnostics and control of mining motor transport are designed for indirect generalized control of workability of assemblies and units of dump truck with output of results to the driver's display and to the onboard data storage unit for the subsequent prediction and service life accounting of assemblies. As a result, recommendations are formed for continuing operation of dump truck on the line or putting it in for maintenance and repair. Also in modern automated control systems of mining complex (ACS MC) this information is transmitted via communication channels to the control centre, where dispatchers and other services can analyze the efficiency and correctness of mining equipment operation.
For this purpose, Caterpillar dump trucks are fitted with various versions of the Vital Information Management System (VIMS™) (Figure 1.), which provides real-time information on the machine's technical condition and payload (more than 250 different diagnostic parameters), thus ensuring maximum productivity of the dump trucks.
Figure 1. Composition of the VIMS™ dumper inspection system for engine, suspension, body and running gear diagnostics
The system communicates with the Truck Payload Management System (TPMS), logs deviations and alerts the operator when an overload occurs. Data is wirelessly transmitted by the Cat Mine Star automated control system to the dispatcher for analysis [3,6]. In addition, the Product Link communication system can be installed on dump trucks to simplify diagnostics, reduce downtime, keep maintenance schedules up to date and reduce costs. The system continually updates hour meter readings, machine status and location as well as provides the ability to plan routes on a map.
Currently, many dump truck manufacturers are conducting research and development work to create promising examples of multifunctional diagnostic and monitoring systems that have a higher level of integration and reliability than serially used ones [3,5,6].
Prospective digital multifunctional diagnostic and control system (MCS), which is a distributed system based on CAN control modules with more advanced electronic operator panel (visualization module) (figure 2) is developed and tested at OJSC "Belarus Automobile Plant - Management Company "BELAZ-HOLDING" for BelAZ dump trucks.
Figure 2. Generalised structure of the multi-functional BelAZ dump truck diagnostics and control system
The system provides control of operational and technological parameters of the dump truck, fault diagnostics, control of the lighting system equipment, light and sound alarms, warning of emergency modes and other functions.
The new multifunctional system of diagnostics and control allows providing its integration with the control system of the robotized dump truck based on the same design CAN-modules. In doing so, the capabilities of the IDS system are used in the unified control system of the autonomous dump truck.
The analysis of on-board diagnostic and control systems of major dump truck manufacturers (Caterpillar, Komatsu, Tirex, BelAZ) has shown that on-board systems are developing not only in the direction of control and diagnostics of vehicle equipment units and aggregates, but also control and analysis of technological parameters, such as loading, productivity, running hours.
The mining equipment maintenance system must operate in the preventive maintenance zone, which includes the first three levels. This will make it possible to pass from the work on fait accompli of accidents and equipment breakdowns to their prevention. Collection and formation of initial information arrays on the modes of equipment use can be carried out effectively only in automated mode with the help of special onboard (installed on the machines) equipment.
Supplementing research functions and equipping regular information and diagnostic system of dump trucks with special diagnostic modules that allow monitoring and control of diagnostic parameters by means of acoustic emission, vibroacoustics and vibromanitoring, will allow using the resource of nodes and units of vehicles in the most efficient way, while preventing its emergency failure.
As a result of the work carried out to organise continuous research and monitoring of the technical condition of mining transport equipment at mining enterprises, the following main conclusions can be drawn:
1. A comprehensive study has shown that the main directions of improving the efficiency of mining production is to study, evaluate and choose the rational mode of operation of the workplace, taking into account the influence of the interaction of elements of the structure of production and its quality.
2. The system of technical maintenance of mining equipment should operate in the preventive zone, including the first three levels. This will enable to move from the work on the accomplished facts of accidents and equipment failures to their prevention. Collection and formation of initial information arrays on the modes of equipment use can be effectively performed only in automated mode with the help of special onboard (mounted on machines) equipment.
3. The data obtained with the help of IDS machines in further studies of the machine is considered as the basis of information sources, when establishing single and generalized criteria for assessing quantitative and qualitative indicators of the system of "working site-machine-operator".
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