Art. teacher of Andijan Machine-building Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan, Andijan
PROCEDURE FOR INVESTIGATION AND ACCOUNTING OF ACCIDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF ACTIVITY IN PRODUCTION
This article describes the procedure for investigation and accounting of accidents at industrial enterprises, measures to prevent accidents and occupational diseases, the main aspects of its implementation. Also, the social, economic, legal and technical effects of the safety regulations of manufacturing processes.
В данной статье описан порядок расследования и учета несчастных случаев на промышленных предприятиях, меры по предотвращению несчастных случаев и профессиональных заболеваний, основные аспекты его реализации. Кроме того, социальные, экономические, правовые и технические последствия правил безопасности производственных процессов.
Keywords: accident, mechanical injury, thermal injury, chemical injury, minor injury, occupational disease, Act N-1.
Ключевые слова: несчастный случай,механическая травма, термическая травма, химическая травма, легкая травма, профессиональное заболевание, акт по форме № N-1.
Introduction. Since 1996, the World Day for Safety and Health at Work has been celebrated annually in all countries of the world since April 28. The International Labor Organization is drawing the attention of the world community to the problems that need to be addressed in the field of labor protection and to raising the culture of labor protection and reducing occupational accidents and occupational diseases.
According to the International Labor Organization, the world's annual production causes 2.2 million death, 160 million occupational diseases, 270 million is the result is a record of serious accidents. Within a year for damage caused by accidents and occupational diseases the amount of money paid- 1.25 trillion. dollars, or 4% of world GDP.
According to statistics provided by the Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Trade Unions, in the first 6 months of 2019 there were 228 industrial accidents, of which 61 were fatal, 155 serious and 11 group accidents.
The Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On labor protection", approved on September 22, 2016, defines occupational accidents and occupational diseases as follows:
an accident at work- in connection with the employee's performance of his duties both inside and outside the employer, including the need to transfer the employee to another job, which led to disability or other damage to health on the way to or from work in the transport provided by the employer; an event that caused temporary or permanent loss of professional capacity or death;
occupational disease- Acute or chronic illness of the employee as a result of exposure to him by a harmful factor of production or a dangerous factor of production, which caused him to temporarily or permanently lose his ability to work;
disability at work- temporary or permanent loss of professional ability of the employee as a result of an industrial accident.
Types of injuries:
- mechanical (fracture, lat spread);
- thermal (burns, cold strokes);
- chemical (burns, poisoning);
- Electrical injuries.
Depending on the location of the injury, head injuries (except for the eyes), legs and arms (except for the fingers), as well as other body parts are divided into injuries.
Injuries are divided into moderate to severe injuries when the ability to work is not lost according to the severity of the injury - mild injuries, when the ability to work is lost for days, weeks and even months.
Approved by the decision of the Cabinet of MinistersThe Regulation establishes a single procedure for the investigation and accounting of events and other damage to the health of employees in enterprises, institutions, organizations of all forms of ownership in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as individual citizens working under employment contracts .
If an employee loses his / her ability to work for at least one day as a result of an industrial accident or needs to be transferred to another lighter job according to a medical report, it is formalized with an act on Form N-1 (4 copies). Accidents documented by Form N-1 are recorded by the enterprise and recorded in the ledger. Copies of the N-1 form must be submitted by the employer to the trade union committee or other representative bodies of employees, the State Committee for Industrial Safety of the Republic of Uzbekistan or the representative of the Uzenergonazorat agency, if the accident occurred at the relevant controlled enterprises (facilities). to the standing economic body, as well as to the relevant ministry (economic management bodies) in accordance with their requirements.
The manual on the correct and effective organization of activities for the heads of primary trade union organizations states that one copy should be sent to the victim (in case of death, family), the head of the labor protection service (engineer, specialist) and the chief state labor inspector.
The following accidents are specially investigated:
- group accidents that occurred simultaneously with two or more employees, regardless of the severity of the damage to health;
- fatal accidents;
- serious accidents.
In the event of a group, fatal, or fatal accident, the employer must immediately notify the following according to the scheme:
- the state inspector of labor equipment;
- to a higher economic body;
- The Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, the regional (Tashkent city) Department of Labor and Social Protection;
- to the body of internal affairs at the scene of the accident;
- the organization that sent the employee who had the accident;
- to the Council of the Association of Territorial Trade Unions.
In the event of a group, fatal or serious accident, the act of Form N-1 shall be drawn up by the commission within 1 day after the conclusion of the special inspection report in accordance with the conclusion of the commission.
The employer must analyze the causes of accidents at work, ensure that they are considered by the work team and take measures to prevent injuries at work.
The ministry, corporation, association, concern conducts accounting and analysis of all accidents, sends it to its enterprises and organizations for information. Develops measures to prevent accidents and monitors their implementation in consultation with the relevant trade union or other representative body.
The employer must compensate the employee for the damage caused to the employee's health in connection with the occupational injury or other work duties, if he cannot prove his innocence for the damage caused.
Occupational injuries received by the employer due to failure to provide socio-economic, organizational, technical, sanitary-hygienic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures and measures to create healthy and safe working conditions (non-compliance with labor protection, safety, industrial sanitation, etc.) is considered to have been committed through no fault of his own.
The following documents may be evidence of the employer's guilt or liability for an occupational injury:
- certificate of special investigation of the accident;
- Certificate of accident and other injuries to health at work;
- court decision;
- conclusion of the state labor technical inspector or other officials (bodies) exercising control over the observance of labor protection and labor legislation, the causes of damage to health;
- medical report on occupational disease;
– a decision to impose an administrative or disciplinary sanction on the guilty persons;
- decision of the trade union committee or other competent body of employees of the enterprise.
In the event of a dispute or the employer refuses to pay damages, the matter shall be resolved by the court in the manner prescribed by law.
In the event that the victim’s gross negligence causes the damage to occur or increases, the amount of damages may be reduced depending on the victim’s fault, but the reduction shall not exceed 50 per cent.
Result and discussion. All accidents that occur in our lives and in manufacturing enterprises not only cause great material damage to the economic development of enterprises, and through them to the economy of our society and state, but also moral and social damage.
This is because there are certain interruptions in the work process due to the separation of qualified personnel. Let’s look at what material damage is.
1. The amount of disability benefits due to an accident
here, - average daily wage
- number of days off work
2. The amount of money spent on a drug and medical facility to restore health
a) - for partial disability
b) - when completely disabled
Here is the average monthly salary before the accident,
is the average monthly salary during the period of disability, UZS.
- 12 (55- t) for women
- 12 (60 – t) is a coefficient indicating the age of the worker for men
t is the age of the injured worker
is the coefficient explaining the fault of the organization
c) The amount of benefits paid to the family of the deceased worker
Where is the number of dependents
- pension to dependents
is the sum of the years in which dependents are retired
4. Material costs of medical organizations:
where - daily medical expenses,
is the total number of days the medical service has been provided.
Thus, the total damage caused by accidents throughout the year due to accidents in the organization can be explained by the reasons for the decrease in the quality of work and the prolongation of production time.
Conclusion and recommendation. The organization of safe and healthy working conditions in the economy in the field of occupational safety and health, the rapid response of people to dangerous situations, emergencies, accidents and occupational diseases, measures to eliminate them in case of emergencies and life safety creation of normative legal bases aimed at coordination of issues.
If manufacturing sites do not follow rules and regulation of safe and healthy workplaces, it might lead to social, economic, legal and technical issues.
First: Employee works very slowly in order not to harm himself in unsafe working conditions. If he gets injured, employers should find substitution. These factors will decrease productivity of manufacturing processes.
Secondly: If employees will get injured or die during the working process, owner of the manufacture has to pay for patient’s medical treatments as we discussed above and/or has to pay enough money for his family’s expenses until
a certain time.
Irregular, non-compliance with applicable laws, standards and guidelines can not only result in injury or damage, but in some cases even death. Naturally, this requires the scientific organization of protection of man from all natural, technical, anthropogenic, ecological and other types of dangerous factors in his activities.
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