Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor, Tashkent State Transport University, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent
ANALYSIS OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF LUBRICATING OIL USE IN QUARRY TRUCKS
This article focuses on improving the efficiency of lubricating oils used in quarry conditions. For the reliable and durable operation of special equipment, as well as the achievement of great technical and economic performance, it is more normal to use engine oils recommended for any type of machinery operating in a very negative, i.e. dusty and dirty environment.
Данная статья посвящена вопросам повышения эффективности использования смазочных масел, эксплуатируемых в карьерных условиях. Для надежной и долговечной эксплуатации спецтехники, также заслуги больших технико-экономических характеристик более нормально использовать моторные масла, рекомендуемые для хоть какого вида техники, работающей в очень отрицательной, то есть пыльной и грязной среде.
Keywords: Operating materials, fuels and lubricants, internal combustion engines, dump trucks.
Ключевые слова: эксплуатационные материалы, горючее-смазочные материалы, двигатели внутреннего сгорания, карерные автосамосвалы.
Introduction. Mining enterprises in Uzbekistan extensively operate strong loading-unloading and motor transport equipment (dump trucks, bulldozers, front loaders, etc.) with diesel engines of various capacities and designs. For their reliable and durable operation, as well as to achieve great technical and economic characteristics it is more normal to use engine oils recommended for any type of machinery operating in a very negative, i.e. dusty and dirty environment.
Object of study: Quarry trucks.
Subject of the research: Increasing efficiency of lubricating oil use in dump trucks.
Research purpose - increase of efficiency of using of pit dump truck, increase of quality indicators of exploitation of dump trucks.
Research objectives: analysis of increase of efficiency of use of lubricating oils in dump trucks; analysis of requirements to motor oils according to State Standard.
Requirements for dump trucks and operating conditions
The most important link in the technological chain in surface mines is the technological roads. Technology in quarries and mines is based on a cycle: loading of rock or overburden, transportation and unloading.
Share of expenditure on fuel and lubricants, including engine oil consumption
Today, fuel, oil and lubricants in road transport account for up to 30% of the total cost per unit of transport work.
During the running-in period of a new machine up to a reading of 5000 km, the oil consumption rate is on average 1 litre per 1000 km. This quantity is consumed by the lubrication system after the piston rings have been replaced. Lubricant consumption is directly dependent on the engine type of the vehicle. Generally speaking, for mileages between 5,000 and 150,000 kilometres, oil consumption is within the following limits:
in normal driving mode - 0.25 litres per 1000 km;
in fast and heavy-duty driving - 0.4 litres per 1000 km;
in mountain and near-peak conditions - 0.5 l per 1,000 km.
In engines with mileage over 150,000 km this figure will be 0.35 - 0.55 l on average.
Lubricant consumption rates are set per 100 litres of total fuel consumption, calculated in accordance with the standards for the vehicle in question. Oils are stated in litres per 100 litres of fuel consumption, lubricants in kilograms per 100 litres of fuel consumption respectively.
Factors affecting engine oil consumption (service life)
The type of engine construction. This factor must take into account the characteristics of the fuel used for operation, as well as the way it is delivered.
The condition of the filter. If a vehicle is operated with a damaged or clogged filter element, the consumption of lubricating oil will definitely be increased.
A large number of factors influence the performance of the oil in the engine:
- the quality of the assembly or the quality of the engine overhaul;
- the total mileage of the engine;
- fuel quality;
- engine operating mode (city, highway, combination of city and highway, with a trailer);
- the driving style (e.g. increased engine speed or gearshift);
- the road conditions (dusty, serpentine) or off-road driving (waterlogged, dusty).
Engine oil is contaminated by mechanical impurities such as dust causing abrasion if the air filter is not changed on time. Soot produced by diesel combustion and released into the crankcase along with the bursting gases increases oil viscosity, impairs oil circulation through the lubrication system, causes deposits and increased wear. Normal wear products from engine parts cause abrasive wear.
Figure 1. CAT 3512 engine oil consumption with 15000-25000 m*h service interval
Unburned fuel dilutes the oil in the crankcase and reduces its viscosity, which can lead to cylinder liner scoring, lacquer deposits on pistons, reduced liner life and increased oil consumption.
Lubricant consumption depends on several cumulative factors:
- the condition of the combustion engine (this includes not only age, power, cylinder displacement and wear, but also the climatic conditions in which it is operated, timely maintenance and other factors)
- condition of the filter (a clogged or damaged filter will increase consumption)
- internal combustion engine construction type (the type and mode of fuel supply determines oil consumption)
- technical characteristics and quality indicators of the engine fluid.
Conclusion. Oils produced in our country are classified according to GOST 17479-72. At present time the domestic and interstate standards for lubricating oils are GOST 6360-83, GOST 8581-78, GOST 10541-78, GOST 12337-84, GOST 20303-74, GOST 20457-75, GOST 20991-75, GOST 23497-79, GOST 25770-83. Some criteria of lubricating oils of mine dump trucks are not mentioned in the above normative documents, which requires additional research. In this connection the question of defining of scientifically based methods for defining the quantity of lubricating oils of specialised vehicles, being operated in difficult conditions, that provides reliable and trouble-free work of these vehicles lubricating oil is actual.
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