Assistant, Jizzakh Polytechnic Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan, Jizzakh
NOMENKLATURE OF FREIGHT IN TRANSPORTATION ISSUES OF VEHICLES
The article deals with the issues of loading of vehicles, the nomenclature of cargo in transportation, the organization of transport and the optimal management of the problem based on its theory only through the analysis of transport processes and systems.
В статье рассматриваются вопросы загрузки транспортных средств, номенклатуры грузов при перевозках, организации перевозок и проблемы оптимального управления на основе ее теории только путем анализа транспортных процессов и систем.
Keywords: Organization of transportation, vehicles, loading, loading in transport, nomenclature, routing.
Ключевые слова: Организация перевозки, транспортные средства, погрузка, погрузка в транспорт, номенклатура, маршрутизация.
It is known that transport plays an important role in our economy and in all spheres of our social life in its stability and development. The smooth and efficient operation of transport systems plays an important role in the growth of our economy and the improvement of the living standards of the population.
Problems of transportation organization and optimal management can be solved only on the basis of his theory by analyzing transport processes and systems. Optimal management of transport systems, ensuring their effective operation requires the organization of transport systems, the processes of transport systems, methods of their management and optimization, the selection of the most effective measures.
To address these issues, material resources, material flows, technological processes of loading and unloading, maintenance and repair of vehicles in general, transport systems as a whole, their interdependence, their interdependence, to ensure the smooth and continuous operation of transport systems. In order to solve such problems, it is expedient to compare the processes in the transport system from an economic or mathematical point of view.
For example: Whether the evaluation of the performance of transport systems depends on the quantitative indicators of economic indicators or on time criteria. However, in the analysis of the performance of transport systems, it is very difficult to organize this process as a whole and develop a mathematical model. To do this, it is necessary to correctly determine the technical and technological parameters (indicators, dimensions, criteria) of the structure of interconnections in all links in the process of system operation. other driving factors and human factors will need to be taken into account.
For example: We do not know in advance what the weather will be like in the organization of the transport process, traffic congestion on the roads, or the number of vehicles of other carriers arriving at the places of loading and unloading, etc. It can be seen that the existing information uncertainties in the operation of the system, conflicts between partners, various factors affecting the operation of the system, etc., by creating mathematical models of integral relationships in the transport process in finding the optimal options for planning the operation of transport systems. optimization of transport systems is carried out through several areas of mathematical modeling.
Routing of gross freight and traffic
Routing means finding such schemes of inter-point traffic so that the length of the unladen road is kept to a minimum and the given freight plan is fulfilled. This requires the development of an optimal plan of unloaded flights using economic-mathematical methods, the development of a joint plan of loaded and unloaded flights, the creation of freight routes.
The issue of routing traffic and traffic will be to select a rational or optimal scheme for the movement of cargo or passengers between the last number of points. In such cases, data on the required volumes of transportation, descriptions of used vehicles and transport network, terms of delivery, time constraints, costs are used as primary data. The target function to be minimized is the sum of the product of the volumes of traffic and the coefficient of weight c, which can be used as a weight factor of the distance traveled by the vehicle, the cost of transportation, transportation time, and so on.
Routes that ensure that the target function does not exceed the required values are considered rational routes, and routes that provide the best of the achieved values are considered optimal routes.
The issues of loading of vehicles determine the nomenclature, size and placement scheme of cargo during transportation. The complexity of the problem increases when it is necessary to take into account the conditions of combining loads (especially for dangerous goods), the sequence of loading, the continuity of consignments of cargo in a single document, in addition to the volume and mass of cargo. As a target function, as a rule, the revenue from transportation is maximized:
The following conditions
the load shall not exceed the dimensions (location) of the vehicle, the dimensions of the container or other container, as well as the established standards of load capacity in terms of length, width and height of the load. In this case, the tariff for transportation of type i i.
The issues of scheduling arise in the maintenance of technological processes of manufacturing enterprises in the performance of transportation on time according to a specific technology, loading and unloading of vehicles in large warehouses and terminals, passenger transportation. The minimum number of vehicles used, downtime, and the revenues and costs associated with these indicators serve as indicators that determine the quality of traffic schedules.
Figure 1. Events, activities and processes
The issues of planning the use of labor resources and technical resources in the transport node are addressed in the optimization of general and special resources for each type of transport in order to reduce the stagnation of all types of resources, increase the efficiency of the transport node. The main direction of solving such problems is to coordinate the schedules of all types of transport, taking into account their technical and technological characteristics, direct or reloading of goods in warehouses, etc.
The issues of planning the work of transport enterprises relate to the transport activities (transportation planning) and operational activities of enterprises (technical inspections and maintenance, staffing). The target function is the total cost of using labor and technical resources, which should be minimized.
Models and modeling
The study of systems of different natures faces the problem of how to reflect them, as well as how to use them in cognitive activities and practical activities. The object is recorded in terms of language, represented on paper with drawings, graphs, photographs, equations and formulas, as well as models, mechanisms, devices. Songra uses these descriptions for scientific research (e.g., observations, experiments) or in practical activities.
Images of objects are called models, the process of creating them is called modeling, and their appropriate use is called model research (model experiment, numerical test, model observation), and use in practice is called model practice.
The model presents a system that serves as a means of obtaining information about another system. Both systems can be material (material) or abstract (abstract). Therefore, models are divided into material and abstract models, as well as intermediate groups between these types of models.
Material models reflect the original by establishing a certain similarity between them. The following three types of similarity are distinguished: physical (direct) similarity, in which the model recreates the organized process by preserving the organized properties. This could be, for example, scale models of vehicles;
indirect similarity is manifested in the form of correspondence or closeness between the model of the original and the model of the abstract models;
Abstract models are created using thinking. There are internal abstract models that reflect the mechanism of thinking and ultimately expressed in language constructions, and external abstract models designed for teamwork. In turn, external abstract models are subdivided into irrational (e.g., theatrical performances) and language models that can be expressed both in natural language and in a specific character form. In the next group, mathematical models play an important role in technical research, where the model provides a mathematical representation of the modeling object.
Simulation modeling of transport systems
Imitation modeling is a type of mathematical modeling in which the image of the model is given in the form of algorithms for the interaction of the elements of the system being modeled. The algorithms used allow to simulate how both system elements and the system as a whole behave, as well as to determine the required parameters of system performance.
Imitation modeling can be determinant or stochastic, static, or dynamic.
In stochastic static models, the values of the initial probabilistic parameters are generated using a random number sensor, after which the values of the other parameters are determined by the given functional connections. Multiple adaptation of the model allows you to collect statistics on the parameters of the model and thus determine its statistical characteristics.
Dynamic models mimic how a system behaves in time and allow us to study how the system works over a given time range or to predict how it will perform in the future. Such models use the concepts of event, process, activity. An event is a change in the state of a system in which an event occurs in an instant. In the interval between the two events, the model remains unchanged. A process is a sequence of activities that are logically or technologically linked to a single goal. Activity is the elementary work of moving a system from one state to another. The activity begins with an event and ends with an event (Figure 1).
In short, the issues of planning the use of labor and technical resources at the transport hub are addressed in the optimization of general and special resources for each type of transport in order to reduce the stagnation of all types of resources, increase the efficiency of the transport hub. The main direction of solving such problems is to coordinate the schedules of all types of transport, taking into account their technical and technological characteristics, direct or reloading of goods in warehouses, etc.
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