USE OF BASALT FIBER AND ITS OPPORTUNITIES

ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ БАЗАЛЬТОВОГО ВОЛОКНА И ЕГО ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ
Matchonova N.
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Matchonova N. USE OF BASALT FIBER AND ITS OPPORTUNITIES // Universum: технические науки : электрон. научн. журн. 2022. 5(98). URL: https://7universum.com/ru/tech/archive/item/13718 (дата обращения: 15.07.2024).
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ABSTRACT

There are described the possibilities of creating unconventional materials, targeted functional paintings, and value-added products through the use of basalt raw materials in this article.

The article is devoted to the prospects for creating functionally oriented products, innovative composite materials aimed at localizing and creating additional value and research on the use of basalt.

АННОТАЦИЯ

В этой статье описаны возможности создания нетрадиционных материалов, целевых функциональных картин и продуктов с добавленной стоимостью за счет использования базальтового сырья. Статья посвящена перспективам создания функционально ориентированных продуктов, инновационных композиционных материалов, направленных на локализацию и создание дополнительной ценности, а также исследованиям по использованию базальта.

 

Keywords: basalt, basalt fiber, roving, cord, twisted reinforced roving, woven, bedding, knitwear, sleeve, composite.

Ключевые слова: базальт, базальтовое волокно, ровинг, корд, крученый армированный ровинг, тканый, постельные принадлежности, трикотаж, рукав, композит.

 

Introduction. Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan of 2019 Resolutions PQ-4277 of April 10 “on additional measures for the organization of the development of fiberglass, fiberglass products, composite materials, energy-saving heating equipment and modern energy-saving systems”[1], PQ-4198 of February 20, 2019 “On measures for the radical improvement and integrated development of the Building Materials industry”[2] are aimed at further development of the production of building materials, increasing the range of modern building materials based on local raw materials and secondary resources. special attention is expected to be paid to.

Literature review. In the world, basalt was first used as a filler for concrete foundations, in the formation of railway tracks, and then continuous basalt fibers were obtained, from which specific threads, woven fabrics, semi-finished products and composites reinforced with them quickly penetrated aircraft construction, shipbuilding and other industries.At the beginning of the XXI century, with the advent of several new enterprises in Russia, Austria, China, Ukraine, the production and use of basalt fiber has further improved [3].

It has been established that, according to the resistance of crystalline structures to intense mechanical stress, basaltic silicates are arranged in the following order: hydro silicates -> framework aluminosilicates (plagioclases) - "chain silicates (pyroxenes) -" orthosilicates (forsterite). The low mechanical resistance of hydro silicate is explained by the presence of large interplanar distances along which the destruction of the structure begins. The greater stability of pyroxenes than plagioclases indicates that the chain framework is more mechanically resistant than silicon-aluminum [4].

D.D. Dzhigiris, M.F. Makhova conducted research on the production of basalt fibers, as well as on their practical application [5-7].

According to F.M. Rozanov and L.A. Chernikina [8], complex indicators of the structure of the fabric take into account the ratio of filling the base and back, this factor takes into account the type of weaving, changes in cross-sectional shape and the size of the threads in the fabric. With their help, the filling ratio is defined as the ratio of the actual filling of the tissue to the maximum level.

A.A. Kurbanov studied the structural parameters of basalt rocks and recommended the production of filter materials from their fibers [9].

According to the analysis of the scientific literature, one-sided (unidirectional), two-sided (biaxal), three-way (triaxal) or multilayer fabric obtained from reinforced basalt fibers is also deposited. The above-mentioned textures, used for special purposes, were the result of the interaction of specialists from several industries, which allowed us to obtain relatively inexpensive innovative products, such as various non-traditional (sports goods, some parts of cars and motorcycles, boat and boat hulls, parts with a complex profile, various construction panels, heat, sound insulation and refractory materials, building structures, wind wings). At the same time, in most cases, there are no cases in the literature when basalt fiber can be observed even in production processes that violate environmental requirements, and the enterprise can become a source of environmental pollution [5]. There fore, along with the expansion of the range of basalt fiber and products made from it, the improvement of production technology is also an urgent issue today.

"Paraffin emulsion", which is a multicomponent water-based dispersion containing paraffin, stearin, vaseline, transformer oils, OC-20 preparation, DTSU fasteners and water, is one of the most common surfactants in the textile industry.

Surfactants are used in the manufacture of complex filaments of various compositions intended for the production of various reinforcing materials from basalt fibers. The main dangerous and harmful factors in the preparation of surfactants are physical (electric shock) and chemical (poisoning through the skin) if the concentration norm is not observed.

Theoretical research. «Uzmetkombinat» JSC in Bekobot, Tashkent region (7-8 thousand tons), «Mega Invest Industrial» LLC in the Forish district of Jizzakh region (1-1.5 thousand tons) and « Elektroizolit» LLC in Tashkent (0.2 - 0.25 thousand tons) associated its activity with basalt. JV LLC "Mega Invest Industrial" manufactures a range of products from basalt fiber: rebar, mesh, geogrid, geotextile, roving, fiber.

“Geobasalt” LLC was established in December 2020. The company produces corrosion-resistant, durable geonets made of basalt fibers (600, 1200, 2400 tex). The new geosynthesis, in contrast to the metal mesh, does not require corrosion resistance and dryness, lies flat on the surface, is safe to use, can be easily cut with construction scissors, does not lose the strength of alkaline concrete, conducts little heat, and provides high adhesion when using special alloys. allows [10].

The aforementioned enterprises of the country produce building materials from basalt stone, such as basalt fiber, fiberglass, high heat-retaining slabs, composite reinforcement, composite mesh. However, today's need is to strengthen theoretical and practical research on the use of this type of raw material in the production of textile and composite materials.It is aimed at creating a classification related to the production and use of continuous basalt fibers, as well as the development of basalt fibers in this area and the creation of not only textiles, but also new types of shaped products, and the improvement of existing technologies.

Results and discussion.If we look at world experience [4], firstly, the chemical composition of basalt is mainly: SiO2 - 45-60%, Al2O3 - 12-19%, Fe2O3 and FeO - 5-15%, SaO - 6-12% MgO - 3-7%, TiO2 - 0.9-2%, Na2O and K2O - 2.5-6% and other compounds -2-3.5%. This is a natural raw material, more ready for fiber than glass.

Secondly, the strength of basalt fiber is several times higher than that of other similar fibers, that is, in accordance with the existing dimensions of the diameter of elementary fibers: 5.0 microns - 215 kg / mm2; 6.0 microns - 210 kg / mm2; 8.0 microns - 208 kg / mm2; 9.0 microns - 214 kg / mm2; 11.0 microns - 205 kg / mm2.

Thirdly, basalt fabrics and products have high strength, non-flammable and flammable, maintain their integrity up to +980 ° C, are resistant to electromagnetic radiation, moisture, corrosion, resistant to chemical influences (acidic, alkaline media and salts) and have electrical insulating properties . Compared to fabrics and products made of glass yarn, their tensile strength is more than 25%, the operating temperature range is from -260 ° C to + 820 ° C (maximum + 980 ° C).

Table 1

The following table shows the general characteristics of basalt fabrics.

Characteristics  of basalt fabrics

Code

Type of weaving

Density, g/m2

Thread diameter, μm

Width, mm

Thickness. mm

BWP200

Plain

200

9

1000

0.18

BWP200

Plain

200

13

1000

0.19

BWP700

Plain

700

13

1000

0.53

BWP900

Plain

900

13

1000

0.82

BWТ350

Тwill

350

13

1000

0.25

BWТ750

Тwill

750

13

1000

0.75

BWU200

Unidirectional

200

9

1000

0.11

BWU300

 Unidirectional

300

13

1000

0.16

BWU400

Unidirectional

400

13

1000

0.18

        

At the joint venture of Mega Invest Industrial LLC, the largest sample was taken from basalt yarn treated with a special surfactant with a linear density of 85 tex, which was made in the form of an experimental sample wrapped in a single-needle sock of the “Soosan 604” automatic machine [11].

Conclusion and Recommendations: The conditions of a cluster development system, which require innovation, industry and intersectoral knowledge, require a comprehensive study of world experience, the production of basalt fibers, the creation of functional fabrics and products, the production of functional composite materials and their targeted use in cooperation with experts in related fields. Effective innovative cooperation, in-depth research, and analysis of scientific databases will accelerate innovation processes and ensure economic growth.

 

References:

  1. Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan of 2019 Resolution PQ-4277 of April 10 “on additional measures for the organization of the development of fiberglass, fiberglass products, composite materials, energy-saving heating equipment and modern energy-saving systems”.
  2. Resolution PQ-4198”on measures for radical improvement and integrated development of the construction materials industry " of February 20, 2019.
  3. https://basalt.today/ru/technologies/ 
  4. K.S. Makarevich. Research, development and production of basalt fibers from igneous rocks: the example of the basalts of the Far East. Abstract. Diss. cand. tech. sciences. Khabarovsk-2006 -8 pp.
  5. D.D. Jigiris. Basics of the production of basalt fibers and products / D.D. Dzhigiris, M.F.Makhova - M .: Teploenergetik, 2002.-416 p.
  6. Ya.A. Shkolnikov. Glass staple fiber / Ya.A. Shkolnikov, B.M. Polik, E.P. Kocharov, E.R. Nigin. M .: Chemistry 1969.-362 p.
  7. M.S. Aslanova. Glass fibers / M.S. Aslanova, Yu.I. Kolesnikov, V.E. Khazanov, etc., ed. M.S. Aslanova. M .: Chemistry. 1979.-251 p.
  8. N.K. Romanichev. Development and production on STB machines of technical fabrics from heat-resistant strands of glass and basalt. Abstract. diss ... cand. tech. sciences. Ivanova 2010 year.
  9. A. A Kurbanov. Development of a rational technology for processing different types of basalts in Uzbekistan. Doc. diss... Navoi -2016 year.
  10. Matchonova N. N. On obtaining composite fabrics and products //ACADEMICIA: An International Multidisciplinary Research Journal. – 2021. – Т. 11. – №. 11. – С. 592-598.
  11. Matchonova N., Rakhimov F. Basalt Fiber and Capabilities for Creating Added Product //Solid State Technology. – 2020. – Т. 63. – №. 5. – С. 5013-5018.
Информация об авторах

Department of Natural Fibers and Fabric Processing, Jizzakh Polytechnic Institute, Uzbekistan, Jizzakh

старший преподаватель, кафедра обработки натуральных волокон и тканей, Джизакский политехнический институт, Узбекистан, г. Джизак

Журнал зарегистрирован Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор), регистрационный номер ЭЛ №ФС77-54434 от 17.06.2013
Учредитель журнала - ООО «МЦНО»
Главный редактор - Ахметов Сайранбек Махсутович.
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