OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS SERVICES IN SERVICING THE EXPORT POTENTIAL OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

ОПТИМИЗАЦИЯ ТРАНСПОРТНО-ЛОГИСТИЧЕСКИХ УСЛУГ ПРИ ОБСЛУЖИВАНИИ ЭКСПОРТНОГО ПОТЕНЦИАЛА РЕСПУБЛИКИ УЗБЕКИСТАН
Sarvirova N.S. Samatov U.G.
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Sarvirova N.S., Samatov U.G. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS SERVICES IN SERVICING THE EXPORT POTENTIAL OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN // Universum: технические науки : электрон. научн. журн. 2022. 5(98). URL: https://7universum.com/ru/tech/archive/item/13617 (дата обращения: 19.07.2024).
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DOI - 10.32743/UniTech.2022.98.5.13617

 

ABSTRACT

The article deals with the problems of carrying out export operations. The role of transport foreign economic activity is revealed. The main methods of optimizing transport costs are presented. The main actions of logistics business processes are the advantages of specialized software. “Green Corridor” – simplification of customs inspection procedures. The article indicates the expansion of the possibilities of using this mechanism.

АННОТАЦИЯ

В статье рассматриваются проблемы осуществление экспортных операции. Выявлена роль транспортной ВЭД. Представлены основные методы оптимизации транспортных расходов, основные действия бизнес-процессов логистики, преимущества специализированного программного обеспечения и “Зеленый коридор” – упрощение процедур таможенного досмотра. В статье обозначено расширение возможностей использования данного механизма.

 

Keywords: Problems of export operations, logistics approach, optimization of transport costs, "Green" corridor.

Ключевые слова: Проблемы экспортных операции, логистический  подход, оптимизация транспортных расходов, “Зеленый” коридор.

 

UDK: 656.078

In the modern conditions of globalization, when the international market of goods and services is striking in scale, the foreign economic activity of enterprises plays an increasingly important role, since more prospects open up for companies in the international market.

Most often, the mutual exchange of the results of economic activity on the international market and related export operations are carried out in the form of a foreign trade contract.

One of the most important and at the same time complex forms of foreign economic activity (FEA) is export operations that arise when concluding a foreign trade transaction and represent a special type of economic relations.

Logistics of foreign economic activity has its own specifics in export-import operations related to it, for example, in the passage of customs formalities, regulation of the terms of delivery of goods under purchase and sale agreements based on Incoterms and international rules of carriage, in the registration of transport, shipping documents, insurance, in the transportation of goods on several types transport, etc.

To maintain their positions in the world markets, enterprises need to make certain efforts in the direction of increasing the level of manufacturability and efficiency of business processes.

 

Figure 1. Basic principles of transport logistics, ensuring its efficiency

 

There is an urgent need to find additional opportunities to further reduce the level of costs for export-import operations, and improve the quality of customer service, improve the processes of regulation and coordination of flow management, which requires a logistical approach.

Despite the difficulties that arise in international transport logistics, it is gaining momentum. This is due to the rapid growth in the volume of international trade, the transfer of some logistics operations to specialized firms, the creation of international, regional unions, which leads to a reduction or cancellation of export and import duties and a reduction in customs formalities and the use of real-time information resources (Internet), which in turn accelerates the process of logistics operations.

 

Figure 2. Fundamentals of the logistics approach in foreign economic activity

 

The economic efficiency of a foreign trade operation largely depends on the correctly selected basic and transport conditions of the cargo rate. The effectiveness of the formation of the transport logistics system of foreign economic activity of the enterprise is achieved when the organization wins and retains the trust of consumers of logistics services.

Optimization of logistics costs, especially in the field of export-import transportation, does not mean that the cargo transportation organizer will spend less money on process maintenance, driver salaries, and vehicle service. The essence of optimization is to get a more effective result with a constant amount of expenses. In the language of physics, optimization leads to an increase in the efficiency of the cargo transportation system. At the same time, the main goal of the optimization processes is to provide a more competitive and profitable offer to maintain and increase the number of loyal customers. Dumping in the conditions of the modern market does not lead to profit growth. On the contrary, understating the price harms the carrier and the customer equally. Far-sighted market participants should use optimization tools for the benefit of customers and their reputation.

Today, companies specializing in cargo transportation use the following methods to optimize transportation costs:

  1. Optimization of routes using application software.
  2. Monitoring of the movement of vehicles involved in transportation.
  3. Accounting for real resources of motor transport adjusted for depreciation and amortization.
  4. Determination of ways to solve work tasks in case of force majeure situations.

Optimization of logistics business processes begins with data analysis and is implemented through specific actions:

  • adjustment of machine sizes and packaging container sizes to maximize the use of the vehicle's load capacity.
  • place of containers inside the body in such a way as to use the entire useful volume of the cargo part of the vehicle.
  • minimization of the number of product overloads, taking into account route optimization.
  • combining several loads in one container to speed up loading and unloading operations.
  • development of a cargo packaging system taking into account their nature and dimensions to preserve the integrity and ensure maximum completeness of the cargo body.
  • working out factors that increase downtime during unloading and loading operations.
  • distribution of cargo deliveries taking into account seasonality and weather conditions.
  • optimization of the trip taking into account the location of toll roads and emergency sections of the way.
  • timely receipt of information about the condition of transport routes.

Logisticians use various mathematical methods to carry out calculations: heuristic algorithms, linear mathematical programming, the minimum price methodology, the Svir algorithm, and the salesman's method. However, not every company can pay for the work of one specialist or an entire logistics department, who manually determine the optimal way to reduce the costs of transport processes. The best solution for managing logistics optimization is the use of software created specifically to improve the quality of cargo transportation. This is especially true in the field of export transportation, where the carrier's liability increases several times and requires compliance with a wide range of formalities.

Modern international companies with a developed logistics structure use professional applications in logistics and route optimization. Specialized software greatly simplifies the life of professionals:

  • the speed of processing requests for cargo delivery is increasing. due to the notification system, the carrier can promptly respond to an incoming order, and apply for a tender on time.
  • the program chooses which vehicles from the carrier's fleet are suitable for the delivery of specific cargo. this is very convenient: you can immediately determine whether the required transport will be available at the right time.
  • automatic filling of contracts, waybills, powers of attorney, and other necessary documentation.
  • the cost of cargo transportation for the client is calculated by the program. the customer immediately knows what expenses are waiting for him.
  • a specialized logistics optimization program simplifies communication with customers, makes life easier for the company's employees, and allows you to increase the efficiency of the entire team to the maximum.

Monitoring vehicles is a good help in the process of optimizing logistics and transportation processes. Tracking cars and analyzing the data obtained allows you to solve a whole range of tasks:

  • reduction of vehicle maintenance costs.
  • identification of inappropriate trips, fuel drains, and other cases of violation of labor discipline by drivers.
  • monitoring how the driver observes the working day and rest during the trip.
  • savings on the purchase of gasoline and other fuels due to accurate calculation of total fuel costs for the entire fleet.
  • monitoring of deviations of the car from a pre-determined route.
  • reducing the likelihood of accidents.

An important role in optimizing such transport and logistics services as customs services for export cargo is played by the presence of "green corridors" on the route of cargo traffic.

The simplified customs corridor — the “green” corridor — is a series of simplified border crossings for individual groups of goods, based on the information exchange of information about the supply of goods based on export declarations.

Currently, 14 such agreements have been concluded, of which 5 are being implemented in practice - with Uzbekistan, Italy, China, the Netherlands, and Turkey. This mechanism is designed to reduce the time for customs operations without losing the quality of customs administration through the use of a risk management system and preliminary information on mutual trade and means of transport available to the customs service.

The idea of such a corridor is especially relevant for Uzbekistan given the existing potential of the country-exporter of fruit and vegetable and agro-industrial products.

A striking example of the implementation of this idea is the test transportation between Russia and Uzbekistan within the framework of the Agroexpress project.

The train, which included containers with fruit and vegetable products — grapes, persimmons, tomatoes, and lemons — arrived from Tashkent at the Selyatino station of the Moscow Railway in December 2021.

Within the framework of the Agroexpress project, with the support of the Ministry of Investments and Foreign Trade of Uzbekistan and the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia, Uzbekistan Temir Yullari, Uzagrologostics centers, Russian Railways Logistics, in partnership with the Russian Export Center (REC), organized in mid-November the first test shipment of frozen poultry meat from Tambov to Tashkent.

The cargo shipment in autonomous refrigerated containers in the composition of a container train proceeded along the route of Tsna (South-Eastern Railway) – Sergeli (Uzbekistan).

This is a pilot export transportation of goods of the agro-industrial complex, implemented within the framework of a trilateral agreement on cooperation in the development of the logistics corridor "Russia — Uzbekistan". The project is implemented with the participation of REI, railways of Russia, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, partner logistics companies, as well as customs and phytosanitary services of the countries participating in the corridor.

During the test shipments, the specialists worked out all the technological and control issues. A special tariff rate has been agreed for the route, and in the future deliveries will be carried out by regular full-service trains according to the schedule.

Delivery of products by rail along the corridor "Russia – Uzbekistan" will take no more than 5-7 days, which is comparable to the speed of transportation by road. At the same time, the organization of a direct railway route will allow exporters to reduce logistical losses, preserve the marketable type of products, and also ensure the rhythm of deliveries with a high speed of goods clearance.

Expanding the capabilities of this promising corridor will attract additional cargo flows from Central Asian markets to Agroexpress routes and additionally stimulate the growth of Uzbek exports of agro-industrial products.

Thus, we can say that the optimization of any transport and logistics service consists of the effective operation of each component of the service accompanying the main transportation.

 

References:

  1. Recommendation and guidelines on the establishment of a Single Window mechanism to improve the effective exchange of information between trade organizations and government agencies, RECOMMENDATION No. 33, UN Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business, Geneva, July 2005.
  2. The state of development of the "single window" mechanism in the system of regulation of foreign economic activity in the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union, Moscow 2017 (electronic resource http://www.eurasiancommission.org/ru/act/tam_sotr/edinoe_okno/Documents/Sbor_EEK_2017.pdf).
  3. Human resource management in logistics systems of multinational companies (electronic resource https://studbooks.net/1394042/menedzhment/analiz_deyatelnosti_logisticheskih_sistem_sfere_upravleniya_chelovecheskimi_resursami#google_vignette).
  4. Cost optimization for cargo transportation logistics (electronic resource https://atlaschain.ru/optimizacziya-zatrat-dlya-logistiki-gruzoperevozok/).
  5. Customs gives the go-ahead: how to increase the export of Uzbek agricultural products to the Russian Federation (electronic resource https://uz.sputniknews.ru/20191206/Tamozhnya-daet-dobro-kak-uvelichit-eksport-uzbekskoy-selzproduktsii-v-RF-12961298.html).
  6. TMS — transportation management system (electronic resource https://www.generixgroup.com/ru/blog/tms-sistema-upravleniya-perevozkami).
  7. Logistics in the innovative economy (electronic resource https://docplayer.com/59154089-Logistika-v-innovacionnoy-ekonomike.html).
  8. Dybskaya, V.V. Logistics in 2 hours Part 1: textbook for undergraduate and graduate studies / V.V. Dybskaya, V.I. Sergeev; under the general editorship of V.I. Sergeev. — Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House, 2019. — 317 p. (electronic resource https://studme.org/286407/logistika/sistemy_avtomatizatsii_upravleniya_transportirovkoy).
Информация об авторах

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Transport Logistics, Tashkent State Transport University, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

канд. экон. наук, доцент, кафедра транспортной логистики, Ташкентский Государственный Транспортный университет, Республика Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

Chief Specialist, Ministry of Transport of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

главный специалист, Министерство транспорта Республики Узбекистан, Республика Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

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