Khasanova O.
Khasanova O. THE ABILITY TO CONTROL THE CIRCULATION OF WATER IN NATURE IS AN INDICATOR OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS // Universum: технические науки : электрон. научн. журн. 2022. 4(97). URL: (дата обращения: 08.12.2022).
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In this article, the most important feature of the water cycle is that it interacts with the lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere to connect all parts of the hydrosphere: oceans, rivers, soil moisture, groundwater and atmospheric vapors. The issues of having a method and technology to manage all components of water resources in a society that has achieved scientific and technological progress.


В данной статье важнейшей особенностью круговорота воды является то, что он взаимодействует с литосферой, атмосферой и биосферой, связывая все части гидросферы: океаны, реки, почвенную влагу, подземные воды и атмосферные пары. Рассматриваются вопросы наличия метода и технологии управления всеми компонентами водных ресурсов в обществе, достигшем научно-технического прогресса.


Ключевые слова: циркуляционное движение вод, океан, река, почвенная влага, подземные воды, атмосферные пары, природные водоемы, суша, пресные воды, поверхностные воды, подземные воды, возобновляемые водные ресурсы.

Keywords: water circulation movement, ocean, river, soil moisture, groundwater, atmospheric vapors, natural reservoirs, land, fresh water, surface water, groundwater, renewable water resources.


Introduction. In nature, the rotational motion of water is associated with the processes of erosion and the formation of landforms. In nature, the circulatory motion of water occurs as follows. It evaporates from the land and the world's oceans under the influence of solar heat and fills the atmosphere with moisture. Experts estimate that 55% of the heat from the sun is used to evaporate water.

Water vapor in the atmospheric air condenses due to the decrease in temperature, liquefies and falls on the surface of the earth and the surface of the world's oceans as rain and snow. Some of the snow and rainwater is absorbed into the soil and the rest forms surface runoff. Thus, water that constantly evaporates from the oceans and inland basins is constantly replenished.

The water in the soil layer is mainly evaporated and used for transport through plants, enriching the atmospheric air with water vapor and, in part, providing groundwater.

This is the scheme of the circulation of water in nature. The most important feature of the water cycle is that it interacts with the lithosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere to connect all parts of the hydrosphere: the oceans, rivers, soil moisture, groundwater, and atmospheric vapors. The circulation of water in nature is influenced by two independent processes.3 [37]

The first of these is the dewatering of the mantle water, a source that replenishes the water of the hydrosphere. This process is very slow and has been going on for billions of years. Data on the intensity of this process are insufficient. River water resources have a high regenerative activity after the rate of renewal of water vapor in the atmosphere. The river water is renewed on average every 11 days. Therefore, it is naturally practically always fresh and serves as the main source of water resources.

- The slower the regeneration, the higher the salt content of such waters, and conversely, waters with high regenerative activity are fresh. Water resources management is mainly carried out in two directions:

- that is, water quality management and water quantity management. First of all, it is understood that water quality management fully meets the requirements of water quality consumers, as surface or groundwater in many areas does not fully meet the requirements of natural quality, and at the same time, over the past 20-30 years need to get. This situation, in turn, requires that the quality be brought to the required level on the basis of different processes before using it for different purposes.

-secondly, the change in the amount of natural water (surface and groundwater) over time occurs on the basis of non-compliance of the national economy with the regime of water consumption or water use. To overcome this situation, of course, it is necessary to control the amount of water. In the strict sense, water resources management means increasing the operational capacity of spring water in order to make full use of it.4[31]

Therefore, the ability of society to manage water resources in particular is an indicator of its scientific and technological progress. As noted, water resources consist of water that occurs in the air, above ground, and underground.

A society that has achieved scientific and technological progress must have a method and technology to manage all components of water resources. Groundwater management issues are relatively new but important. In terms of water supply to the national economy and their perfect use, the waters in the upper layers of the earth are often inextricably linked with the surface waters. Therefore, they can achieve efficient use of common water resources through the use of these waters, along with the organization of a single water resource. 5 [47]

The difference in the matter of groundwater from surface water is that their composition is relatively stable over time because they are several times, even 100 times smaller, due to the process of leaking their flow. That is why any water-saturated layer is a natural reservoir. The volume of water in it is tens of cubic km. measured and have relatively constant quality and quantity indicators. Natural groundwater reservoirs become artificially controlled reservoirs with the commissioning of the first drilled well as a drainage facility. Such a reservoir can receive water equal to the average amount of feed per year, regardless of its level of water supply.

In this case, the water received in low water years is carried out at the expense of natural resources of the reservoir. If necessary, the reserves in the reservoirs can be replenished at the expense of unused surface water.

Water is the only substance on the planet that has no analogues. We can't even imagine it. While the human body is 80 percent water, 71 percent of the earth is covered with water. The percentage of land relative to water is known.

The annual amount of renewable groundwater reserves across countries fluctuates from a hundred or even a thousand cubic kilometers to tens or hundreds of percent of that amount.

Areas rich in renewable water resources are located in the lands of 6 major countries of the world: Brazil, Russia, Canada, USA, China and India.

Special studies have shown that the population of the planet is constantly growing (if its number was 0.9 billion in 1800, in 1920 - 1.8 billion, in 1970 - 4.0 billion, in 1990 - 5.2 billion, -6.3 billion in 2000, -11 billion in 2050) to provide food, and by 2050 500 million hectares of irrigated land will need to be cultivated to achieve high yields (currently the area is about 285 million). However, the available water resources are only 450 million. e to irrigate the land. 7 [15-17]

In conclusion, the essence of water sector reforms in Uzbekistan is the interstate socio-political situation in the Aral Sea region, which is associated with a shortage of water resources and the use of transboundary water resources, which requires the most efficient use of each layer of water. In the early days of independence, our country has created a legal framework to address this situation, and reforms are being carried out on a regular basis.



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Информация об авторах

Senior lecturer of Andijan Institute of Agriculture and Agrotechnologies, Uzbekistan, Andijan

старший преподаватель Андижанского института сельского хозяйства и агротехнологии, Узбекистан, г. Андижан

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