Senior Lecturer, Bukhara Engineering and Technology Institute, Uzbekistan, Bukhara
ANALYSIS OF GIRIKH ORNAMENTS FROM THE HISTORICAL HANDWRITING "DAFTARI-GIRIKH"
This article presents the concepts of oriental geometric ornaments - girikhas, which are often found in architecture and folk arts and crafts of Central Asia. The article presents examples of the use of girikh ornaments in historical architectural monuments. Information is given about the historical manuscript “Daftari girikh” with images of girikhs, stored in the Bukhara State Museum-Reserve. The analysis of auxiliary geometric constructions, on the basis of which fragments of girikhs are depicted, is carried out. Drawings of auxiliary grids and images of girikhs themselves from the old manuscript “Daftari girih” made on their basis are given.
В данной статье приведены понятия о восточных геометрических орнаментах – гирихах, которые часто встречаются в архитектуре и народно-прикладном искусстве Центральной Азии. В статье приведены образцы применения орнаментов гирихов в исторических архитектурных памятниках. Приведены сведения об исторической рукописи “Дафтари гирих” с изображениями гирихов, хранящейся в Бухарском Государственном музее-заповеднике. Проведён анализ вспомогательных геометрических построений, на основе которых изображены фрагменты гирихов. Приведены чертежи вспомогательных сеток и выполненных на их основе изображений самих гирихов из старинной рукописи “Дафтари гирих”.
Keywords: ornament, patterns, girikh, folk and applied art, manuscript, auxiliary grid.
Ключевые слова: орнамент, узоры, гирих, народно-прикладное искусство, рукопись, вспомогательная сетка.
Central Asian art, architecture and culture have long been famous. The magnificent buildings built by our ancestors in the past have not lost their charm to this day. The tastefully crafted patterns amaze every spectator. Even travelers from abroad are amazed to see the ancient monuments of our country, the patterns made with artistic taste. Ulugbek Madrasah in Bukhara, Ismail Somoni Mausoleum, Kalon Minaret, Shahizinda Mausoleum in Samarkand, Guri Amir Mausoleum, Ulugbek Sherdor, Tillakori Madrasahs and others enchant people with the unique beauty of the East and the splendor of pattern motifs . The vivid patterns on the monuments, created by the convex hands of hundreds and thousands of folk architects, seem to sing the world of the beauty of nature and lift the spirits of the people. For example, when we look at the Ulugbek Madrasah in Samarkand, a place of higher education that has been famous in the Muslim East for centuries, it is easy to see that it was built for educational purposes through the decoration of painters. The patterns of polygonal and polygonal stars from the innumerable intersecting lines in the decoration of the madrasa seem to tell the story of the glittering patterns in the universe for centuries. These innumerable intersecting lines, geometric patterns consisting of stars of different angles and sides are called entrances. (Figure 1)
Figure 1. Samarkand. Ulugbek madrasah. Registan. XV century.
Indeed, our country, Independent Uzbekistan, has a very ancient and rich history of science . Studying it is an honorable duty of our people.
Among the famous scientists in this field, it is worth mentioning the unnamed craftsmen and engineers. Historical architectural monuments, unique folk handicrafts, images in historical manuscripts, which are the beauty of our country, were created by people who know the science of "khandasa". It is well known that in the East, especially in Central Asian architecture, applied art, patterns are mainly divided into two groups. Patterns consisting of plant elements - patterns consisting of islimi and geometric shapes - girikhs. Both types of patterns were used together. Girikh means Persian, chigal, knot.
Girikh is a pattern consisting of geometric constructions and shapes. They are widely used in historical architectural monuments, wood and plaster carvings in folk applied art. In modern architecture, girikh patterns are also used in the decoration of national handicrafts. Some of the examples of entrances that represent the infinity of the world - the shapes of the sun and stars - are shown in Figures 2-5.
Figure 2. Bukhara. Rare devonbegi room. Labi Hovuz. XV century.
Figure 3. Bukhara. Part of the roof of the Mahoki Attoron Mosque. XII century
Figure 4. Bukhara. Mosque Kalon side gate. XV century
In the Bukhara State Museum-Reserve historical manuscripts "Daftari girikh" are kept in the form of paper wraps. From the inscriptions in Arabic spelling, the name of their author Ashur Ghulamshah was identified. These manuscripts describe one of the principles of drawing entries - methods of drawing geometric shapes on the basis of auxiliary nets. Figure 5 shows one of the entrance drawings in the manuscript.
Figure 5 Girikh auxiliary network and image of Girikh based on it.
The geometric pattern will have certain distributions. Each division has its own structure. In the historical manuscript "Daftari girikh" considered, such divisions consist of samples of 12 fragments, which have a size of about 9 cm X 6 cm and are drawn in black on the basis of the type drawn (scraped) with a needle underneath. Of course, if we look at history, it is a great scientific discovery that the entrance to that time was made on the basis of precise geometric shapes, using drawing tools. The masters who worked on the depiction of these entries were people who were well versed in the science of handasa-geometry. This manuscript could be used in the design process in applied arts and architecture.
If this topic is used in the educational process, young people will be taught not only geometry and drawing, but also contribute to the aesthetic taste of the younger generation. Based on the auxiliary constructions of the historical source "Daftari-girikh", the pattern of the drawn girikh can be used in the teaching of "Engineering Graphics" and "Computer Graphics", in the repair of historical monuments, in the decoration of modern buildings.
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