Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Tashkent Institute of Textile and Light Industry, Uzbekistan, Tashkent
CLEANING COTTON FROM SMALL DIRTY
The process of separating the cotton fiber from the seeds takes place in the cleaning equipment installed inside the drying and cleaning section, so that its contamination and foreign compounds do not affect the quality of the fiber.
Процесс отделения хлопкового волокна от семян происходит в очистительном оборудовании, установленном внутри сушильно-очистительного участка, для того, чтобы его загрязнение и посторонние соединения не влияли на качество волокна.
Keywords: seed cotton, cleaning machines, dirt, pile drum, pile
Ключевые слова: хлопок-сырец, очистительные машины, грязь, ворсовый барабан, ворс.
The degree of contamination is mainly when cotton is picked by hand depends on the attention of the harvester, the timely and quality of defoliation of cotton leaves when harvesting by machine. Compounds found in cottonseed can be organic and mineral compounds in terms of origin. Organic bodies include parts of the cotton bush — leaves, twigs, pelvis, flower petals, fruit bands, and other plant parts (sand and other weeds). Mineral compounds include rock, sand, soil, coarse and so on.
The size of the group of fine mixtures is 10 mm. less than 10 mm in size for a group of large compounds. compounds greater than Dirty mixtures are divided into passive or inert and active types in terms of adhesion to seed cotton. Passive or inert mixtures are on the surface of the seed cotton balls and are easily separated from the seed cotton when lightly shaken. It will be difficult to separate the active compounds from the seed cotton. To separate the active compounds from the seed cotton, they must first be made passive. Therefore, in the selection of cotton ginning equipment, attention is paid to the nature of the mixtures and how they adhere to the ginned cotton.
Cleaning of seed cotton from fine waste technology
When choosing the types of equipment needed to clean cotton from various contaminants, it is important to take into account their physical and mechanical properties (size, origin, degree of adhesion to cotton).
The cotton ginning machines will consist of a pile drum section and a saw drum section. Fine weeds are best cleaned in the pile drum section, while large mixtures are best cleaned in the saw drum section.
Seed cotton cleaning equipment is evaluated (characterized) by work efficiency and cleaning efficiency (the ability to separate straw, husks and loose seeds from seed cotton). The cleaning efficiency of the equipment is determined as a percentage of the mass of the mixture separated from the cotton falling on the equipment to the mass of the mixture contained in the seed cotton.
where: S1, S2- level of contamination of seed cotton before and after cleaning,%
The cleaning efficiency of the equipment is greatly influenced by their work efficiency, moisture and contamination of the seed cotton. The performance of the equipment is increased by adapting to their maximum cleaning efficiency. When the moisture content of the seed cotton is reduced to a normal level, the cleaning efficiency is increased, and the separation of contaminants from the seed cotton is facilitated and increased. In addition to the reduction in the cleaning efficiency of the equipment when cleaning cotton seeds with higher than normal humidity, there are also additional defects in the fiber of this seed cotton. (Table 2).
Additional defects in the fiber of this seed cotton
Processing conditions of seed cotton
Defects in fiber,%
The cleaning efficiency of the equipment varies depending on the amount of contaminants in the seed cotton: the more contaminants there are, the more contaminants are released during cleaning.
Fine additives are well separated from the seed cotton in drum and auger cleaners, and it is considered sufficient to sift the seed cotton during the cleaning process to separate them. For this reason, ginning equipment is used to clean the seed cotton from fine impurities.
The mesh surfaces (Fig. 1) can be made of steel wire, solid tin with different shaped eyes, or coils of different shapes.
а) b) c)
a) tin woven from steel wire; b, c) made of tin with various perforations.
Figure 1. Types of mesh surfaces
The cleaning efficiency of the equipment depends on the relative position of the mesh surface with the pile drill. (Figure 2)
1-pile drum; 2-pegs; 3-mesh surface.
Figure 2. to seed cotton in pile drum cleaners influencing forces
F1 - is the friction force of a piece of cotton seed on the mesh surface; G1 -centrifugal force; G -the weight of a piece of seed cotton; F2 - is the friction force on the pile surface of a piece of cotton seed; R - the resistance of the air flow inside the chamber.
The forces F1 and R, on the one hand, and the forces G1 and F2, on the other hand, form a pair of forces (Fig. 51) and tend to rotate the cotton seed in the direction of the surface arrow. the dirty compounds in it separate and leak out through the holes in the mesh surface.
Such cleaners are called pile-planks because the drums of some cleaners are fitted with a solid rail on the third row after two rows of pegs have been installed. the cleaning efficiency of the pile-rail cleaners is somewhat higher, as in them the seed cotton is rubbed with the piles, and the plank intensifies the cleaning by increasing the air flow.
Structure and operation of fine-grained cleaning equipment.
Equipment used to clean seed cotton from fine contaminants will be installed in the drying-cleaning department, cleaning department of the ginning plant and in the supply of each gin. Equipment for the separation of fine impurities from seed cotton is divided into pneumatic, pneumatic and mechanical systems.
The fine-grained separation equipment is individual and battery-operated depending on the place of installation, single-drum and multi-drum depending on the number of working bodies, and single-drum and multi-drum depending on the number of working bodies. divided into drum and auger types.
At present, in the ginning industry in the cleaning of seed cotton from fine impurities, mainly 8-pile drum SCh-02; 1XK cleaners and EN178 pile blocks are used. Figure-3 shows the process diagram of the 1XK fine-grained treatment plant.
Figure-3 Technological scheme of 1XK seed cotton ginner
1 supply roller; 2-pile drum; 3 mesh surface; 4 dirt bunker; 5-tray.
The process is as follows: Seed cotton supply rollers (1) is lowered into the mine mounted on it. The reciprocating supply rollers, which rotate against each other, pass the seed cotton to the pile drum (Fig. 4) at a uniform rate. the pile drum in turn passes the seed cotton over the mesh surface and passes it to the second drum.
1-bar; 2 pegs; 3-axis (shaft); 4-drum tunic (kojux); 5-bearing; 6-bearing; 7-flyanets; 8 fasteners bolts.
Figure 4. Pile used for cleaning from minor contaminants the structural structure of the drum
In this order, the seed cotton is separated from the fine impurities as a result of repeated cleaning in all drums. The separated contaminants fall down through the mesh surface holes at the bottom of the drums along the sloping walls of the contaminant bunkers and are sucked in by pneumatic transport. The cleaned seed cotton is removed from the equipment and transferred to the next technological process.
The actual performance of the equipment is calculated by the following equation:
In this case: L-the length of the processing path in the gin of seed cotton, mm;
F- cross-sectional area of cotton, m2
-Density of -seed cotton, kg / m3;
= 0.25÷0.30 - coefficient of surface use;
- cleaner utilization factor, = 0,3÷0,35;
T-Time to stand (be) in the cleaner of seed cotton, s
1XK (SCh-02) main cleaning equipment technical indicators:
1. Productivity, t / h ....................................................................... 5.0 ÷ 7.0
2. Cleaning efficiency % ................................................................. 4550
3. Rotation speed, rpm?
a) The supply roller ......................................................... 0 ÷ 14
b) pile drum .............................................. ...................... 480
4. Technological distance (piled with mesh surface
drum spacing), mm ............................................. .................... 14÷ 20
At present, the only convenient and modern technology for cleaning seed cotton from contaminants is the use of "Streaming" equipment in the drying and cleaning departments of ginneries. In fact, the "flow-oriented" equipment complex consists of several sections of the "UXK" type, and the use of auxiliary means: transportation, transmission and collection of raw materials, the use of transport will be completely abolished. Therefore, it reduces the types of forces that negatively affect the physical and technological properties of seed cotton. This, in turn, will help maintain the quality of the fiber, which is the main product of the gin, and reduce injury or crushing of the seed.
1-pile block section, 2- rush block section, 3-section saw, 4-screw conveyor (auger).
Figure 5. Technological scheme of the initial section of the unit UXK.01
UXK-aggregate sections (Fig. 7) can be of three types: UXK.01-initial section, (Fig. 5) UXK.02-middle section, UXK.03-final section (Fig. 6).
1 pile block section; 2 brush block section; 3-saw section section; 4-screw conveyor (screw); 5 Peeled cotton seed trough.
Figure 6. Technological scheme of the last section of the unit UXK.03
Figure 6. UXK complex based on interconnection of sections (A, B, C) of UHK by means of pile blocks EN-078. to die with
The difference is that in section UXK.01, the supply rollers are installed, while in section UXK.03, a closed bar is installed at the exit of the cleaned cotton machine.
Section UXK.02 is adapted to connect additional sections on both sides, at the expense of which the middle section can increase or decrease the number of sections in the aggregate (Fig. 56). When cleaning selection varieties of hard-to-clean cotton, the number of sections in the unit is multiplied by 6 (7). For example: KOGT-
The complex is used for these hard-to-clean cotton varieties.
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