Assistant professor, Department of Hardware and Software of Control Systems in Telecommunication Tashkent University of Information Technologies named after Muhammad al-Khwarizmi, Uzbekistan, Tashkent
THE ROLE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN GROWING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
The fields of application of geographic information technologies in agriculture are diverse and include search tasks, as well as tasks related to the storage and processing of cartographic, attributive, graphic and textual information. Database management systems are used to store, search and issue information at the request of end users. They can contain a variety of information such as data from agrochemical soil analysis, analysis of the need for machinery and equipment, monitoring of the work of employees and analysis of their effectiveness. Geographic information systems can solve and improve economic efficiency, improve the quality and quantity of crops.
Области применения геоинформационных технологий в сельском хозяйстве разнообразны и включают в себя поисковые задачи, а также задачи, связанные с хранением и обработкой картографической, атрибутивной, графической и текстовой информации. Для хранения, поиска и выдачи информации по запросам конечных пользователей, используются системы управления базами данных. Они могут содержать разнообразную информацию такую как данные агрохимического анализа почвы, анализ потребности в технике и оборудование, мониторинг работы сотрудников и анализ их эффективности. Геоинформационные системы могут решить и повысить экономическую эффективность, улучшить качество и количество урожая.
Keywords: GIS, geographic information system, GIS technologies, agriculture, system, remote sensing of land.
Ключевые слова: ГИС, геоинформационная система, ГИС-технологии, сельское хозяйство, система, дистанционное зондирование Земли.
Today, the rapid development of all spheres of public life requires the implementation of reforms based on modern innovative ideas, developments and technologies that will ensure rapid and quality progress of our country on the path to becoming a leader of world civilization. Therefore, in our country, as in all spheres of our economy, significant results are being achieved in the radical reform of agriculture, the introduction of market mechanisms in the sector, the further improvement of the processing system and value added. New long-term tasks for the development of the industry are identified. Geographic information system (GIS) is the collection, processing, analysis, modeling and display of information about geographical objects, as well as the use of digital cartographic, analogous and textual information or an automated system designed to solve information and computing tasks of network importance.
Agricultural facilities are usually geographically linked, it means that there is a fundamental opportunity to map and analyze them. Paper-based tables with production resources and their spatial distribution have always been available on farms. If we apply the problem to agriculture (selection of technological operations for agricultural crops, tillage, sowing and harvesting), we should focus on two dual functions - minimizing energy consumption and increasing the value of income. The GIS provides the information needed to process and manage information in the form of graphs and tables from external databases. One of the promising ways to increase the efficiency of agricultural production management is the use of information systems based on geoinformation technologies. Such systems allow to solve many tasks, including providing information in decision-making, planning of agricultural works, monitoring of agricultural works and crops. To provide the necessary set of data for management decisions, a database has been created on the GIS platform: a digital model of the land on which agricultural work is carried out; information on remote sensing; information on the properties and characteristics of soils; crop maps by year; history of processing areas, etc. Large-scale systematization of information, its storage, updating, retrieval and rapid retrieval of interested users - all this requires the automation of processes, the creation of modern information systems based on computer technology. The main function of such systems is to create a database (DB), develop and use the necessary software, and manage the operation of the system. spatial with the advantages of analysis. This feature provides unique opportunities for the use of GIS in solving a wide range of tasks related to the analysis of events and incidents, predicting their possible consequences and planning strategic decisions. In geographic information systems, data is stored as a set of themed layers combined according to geographic location. This flexible approach and the ability of geographic information systems to work with vector and raster data models will be effective in solving any problems related to spatial information (Andrianov V.D., “ГИС в сельском хозяйстве”). GIS provides the necessary information to process information in the form of graphs and tables, as well as those involved from the external database, and make them usable in management. The use of the GIS in the agricultural sector of the economy demonstrates the validity of management from a new level of quality, making it a viable alternative to voluntary decisions.
GIS, as a system, contains many interconnected elements, each of which is directly or indirectly related to each other, and any two sub-sets of this set represent the integrity, unity of the system. cannot be independent without breaking. The GIS-package, designed to address national and regional challenges, needs to be strong. The use of data is effective when it is easy and convenient for potential users to access it. The Internet and computer networks allow computers to connect to each other and exchange information quickly. Unlike information systems, GIS brings with it many new technologies for spatial data analysis, along with electronic office technologies and optimization of solutions on this basis. Therefore, GIS is an effective way to modify and synthesize different data for management tasks. The GIS is characterized by a wide range of data collected using a variety of methods and technologies. It should be noted that they combine the capabilities of text and graphic databases.
Analysis of big data, top-down monitoring of crop conditions, timing of harvesting, calculation and monitoring of fertilization schemes, crop forecasting, soil condition, plant parameters monitoring, microclimate measurements - these and other capabilities are photographs taken from space, will be made possible through a platform that collects data from drones, meteorological stations, sensors and other equipment. The Ministry of Agriculture's own geo-information system based on the ArcGIS software product has been launched in test mode since November 2021. Today, this system is integrated with the information systems of 4 ministries and departments of the republic, as well as information systems of subordinate organizations of the Ministry of Agriculture. The capabilities of the processed data and the system are constantly expanded by monitoring the data collected from space every 10 days throughout the country, collected in real time by 200 field workers. Data analysis capabilities have been created using artificial intelligence technologies to obtain all the necessary information, including land users, soil properties, availability of irrigation systems, and automatic detection of crop types. In the future, the system will focus on the needs of agricultural users, and with its help it will be possible to select a convenient time for planting and harvesting, calculate the fertilization scheme, monitor, forecast crop yields, timely identify diseases.
The GIS is characterized by a wide range of data collected using a variety of methods and technologies. It should be noted that they combine the capabilities of text and graphic databases. The GIS uses the maximum number of modeling methods and processes used in other information systems, primarily CAD.
In the future, the system will focus on the needs of agricultural users, and with its help it will be possible to select a convenient time for planting and harvesting, calculate the fertilization scheme, monitor, forecast crop yields, timely identify diseases.
With the help of digital technologies, it will be possible to carry out full monitoring and coordination in the production and sales chain of agriculture. Digital technologies ensure the objectivity of the data obtained, and this allows us to create optimal models in the management of agricultural land.
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