Assistant, Department automation of machine building production, Andijan machine-building institute, Uzbekistan, Andijan
Application procedure CAD/CAM/CAE - systems in scientific research
The following paper introduces the methods of teaching students for Bachelor’s Degree, Master’s Degree and Engineering Specialties on the basis of CAD/ CAM/CAE/ technologies during the teaching process and scientific research.
В работе изложена методика обучения инженеров, магистров и бакалавров на основе CAD/CAM/CAE-технологий в учебном процессе и научных исследованиях.
Keywords: computer technologies, CAD-CAE technologies, automated systems.
Ключевые слова: computer technologies, CAD-CAE technologies, automated systems.
Modern machine-building and machine-tool enterprises, producing complex science-intensive products, use information technology - one of the tools to improve the efficiency of design and production of products.
The life cycle of a product is a set of interrelated processes (stages) of creation and sequential change of state from the processing of raw materials for its manufacture to the operation and disposal of the product. CAD / CAM / CAE / GIS / PDM / PLM technologies.
In the process of design and technological preparation of production, computer-aided design systems are used. In foreign technical literature, they are known as CAD / CAM / CAE technologies.
As you know, CAD complexes are divided into light (CADAM, VersaCAD), medium (Solid Designer, Inventor, Mechanical Desktop) and heavy integrated systems Pro / ENGINEER, Unigraphics, CATIA, I-DEAS, I / EMS, EUCLID).
The most famous of them in the university (in the initial courses of study) are AutoCAD and its applications; KOMPAS 3D, ArchiCAD, Solid Edge, CADdy, etc.
A personal computer (PC) is a modern (progressive) technical teaching tool that makes it possible to take full advantage of the advantages of active teaching methods: the development of creative thinking, the development of practical skills in the study of a particular subject, etc.
Traditional methods form, as a rule, only an information base (in the case of a predominance of the student's passive position in the course of the educational process).
Modern tasks of higher education can be achieved through programmed training in the organization of continuous computer training for engineers, bachelors and masters, starting with general education and technical disciplines of the 1st year and ending with a diploma project in a specialty at specialized departments.
When training engineers of technical specialties, masters and bachelors, first of all, "Mechanical Engineering", "Computer Graphics", "Descriptive Geometry" are studied, and later, on the basis of the knowledge gained, special disciplines of design, technology, operation and repair with extensive use of computer technology ...
For successful training, you need to: create the required number of jobs, prepare computers, configure hardware, software provision and have available a sufficient amount of educational methodological material.
An indispensable condition for this is the availability of a separate workplace for each student. If a student finds himself in the role of a mere spectator, then he simply wastes time without acquiring the necessary practical skills.
As practice shows, in order to master a software product within the scope of the course, it is necessary to provide a PC and time for independent work.
In this case, a means of solving the problem of a large volume of the studied material is the method of its presentation, which consists in the fact that the user begins to work with the computer, and the necessary minimum of theoretical information is given directly during the lesson.
This is provided by pre-prepared methodological instructions and materials, a set of which is given to each student at laboratory work or practical lesson. The kit includes pictures describing interface elements, coordinate systems, lists of the most frequently used keyboard commands, basic terms and definitions, tables of parameters of drawing objects, and so on.
Laboratory and practical exercises are structured in such a way that the user learns not just how to construct abstract lines, circles, rectangles, and so on, but precisely how to solve specific problems that are encountered in practice.
The graphic part of the assignment usually consists of two parts. One of them is given as a sample, which depicts what the user should receive as a result of the task. On the second, the student completes all the constructions.
The order of the task is given in the form of sequential steps (solution algorithm). Following the instructions of the teacher, the student completes the proposed task. Since, when executing drawings, the same construction can be performed in several ways and the proposed procedure is far from the only one, in different tasks, whenever possible, different methods of performing typical actions are used. In this case, the user gradually learns to independently determine the most optimal of them. This order of presentation of the material simplifies and accelerates its assimilation.
Due to the large volume of the studied material, it is impossible to fully acquaint the student with all the capabilities of the studied system. Therefore, it is important to instill the skills of independent work so that he can further independently continue the study and later gradually deal with the material that was not included in the training course; learn how to use the system to solve specific problems in subsequent courses.
At the final stage of training, 1st year students carry out standard (engineering) drawings of parts, assembly drawings, specifications, diagrams, etc., with the fulfillment of the ESKD requirements.
In the process of learning, students, when performing independent work, course projects, educational research work of students, etc., are faced with a number of problems, the solution of which is greatly simplified using computer technology.
In this, the teaching aids of the departments, focused on the implementation of specific applied tasks, can be of great help.
A feature of technical specialties is the need to work with a large amount of graphic material in the form of complex engineering
drawings, the need to assess the multivariance of the proposed design and engineering solutions, the widespread use of computational numerical and optimization methods.
In this regard, the implementation of the learning process in these specialties requires not the occasional use of computer technology, but systematic work within the framework of continuous computer training.
For this purpose, general engineering and specialized departments have developed programs for the practical use of PCs in laboratory work, course projects, independent work in the disciplines studied and diploma design.
Classes on a PC are conducted according to the curriculum using software such as: КОМПАС, ANSYS, Word, Excel, ACAD, MathCAD, etc., ensuring the continuity of training (working with these packages) in the first and subsequent courses at the departments of related specialties.
At the same time, for in-depth study of these software products, multimedia teaching aids are widely used, in particular, in the form of CD-ROM discs such as "32 lessons for studying КОМПАС", etc.
The effectiveness of continuous computer training can be significantly enhanced by organizing the use of computers in the educational process in various forms, depending on the specific tasks to be solved:
- Demonstration. The computer is used as a means to accompany the teacher's explanation. In this case, a multimedia projector is indispensable, which allows you to transfer information from the display to the large screen.
- Synchronous. Students simultaneously perform the same actions at the computer (they type the same commands, observe the same results).
The purpose of such work is either mastering software packages, or demonstrating the solution of a problem.
- Individual. One student works at each computer. This form is used when conducting test control in various disciplines. Students work individually when performing sections of course and diploma design. Practical (laboratory) classes on computer science, numerical methods, computer graphics, calculation and design of machine tools, the basics of computer-aided design of machine-tool equipment, design and modeling of technological systems, etc. are held on an individual basis.
- Joint, collective. When each group completes its part of the task, followed by analysis of the specific results obtained and the development of measures aimed at improving the technical performance of the task being solved.
As part of the educational research work of students, an extended study of "Compass" and a number of software products such as Pspise, Design Lab, MicroCAP, VisSim is carried out - a software complex used in electronics and electrical engineering.
In combination with other applications such as ACAD, T-Flex, CAE finite element analysis systems (Nastran, Cosmos, ANSYS, MathCAD, etc.), engineering calculations and analytical studies of designed objects are performed.
Their deeper study is carried out at engineering and profiling departments, as well as during postgraduate studies.
In some cases, the creation of a 3D model with its subsequent calculation by the finite element method using CAE technologies (ANSYS; WinMachine, etc.) is a more time-consuming operation than creating this model using CAD (Compass, ACAD, LMC Virtual Lab, etc.) with subsequent transfer to the calculation program.
For example, the system of three-dimensional solid modeling Compass-3D, designed to create three-dimensional parametric models of parts and assembly units containing both typical and non-standard structural elements, allows you to solve this problem in relation to the WinMachine software as follows.
Figure 1. Importing a Step-model
Possible ways of transferring a 3D model to WinMachine are:
1) transfer from Compass-3D using the standard method of connecting libraries;
2) directly into the APM Studio module (if the model is open in Compass-3D);
3) from AWP Studio as a result of import (if the model was previously saved in the Compass-3D format).
Figure 2. Spatial deformation of the ball screw support housing longitudinal feed of CNC lathe
Figure 3. Rigidity of the longitudinal feed drive of the machine model 1716PF3
In the first case, the import of the Step-model for subsequent calculation is carried out in the sequence according to Fig. 1.
Further stages of the calculation are: setting power loads, initial and boundary conditions; splitting the solid model into volumetric finite elements with the subsequent obtaining of the results of the calculation of elastic deformations.
According to this technique, in particular, calculations of the body parts of the feed drive of a numerically controlled lathe (Fig. 2) were carried out in order to identify the degree of influence of spatial deformations on the stiffness of the drive (Fig. 3) and the value of the dead zone during reverse, which are one of the most important performance characteristics when processing parts of a complex contour .
Conclusion . A methodology for teaching engineers, masters and bachelors based on CAD / CAM / CAE technologies is described, which consists in the fact that the user begins to work with a computer, and the necessary minimum of theoretical information is given directly during the lessons in the process of solving specific problems that are encountered on practice.
As part of the educational research work of students, an expanded study of a number of software products is carried out, on the basis of which engineering calculations and analytical studies of the designed objects are carried out.
The use of the developed methodology can significantly reduce the time spent on mastering computer technology and information technology; contributes to the improvement of the forms and methods of teaching, the intensification of the educational process.
The use of innovative technologies at the university in the educational process and scientific activities of students and postgraduates makes it possible to prepare highly qualified specialists and young scientists.
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