The extraction and fractionation of Ferula samarcandica root exracts

Извлечение и фракционирование экстрактов корня Ferula samarcanda
The extraction and fractionation of Ferula samarcandica root exracts // Universum: химия и биология : электрон. научн. журн. Kamoldinov K.S. [и др.]. 2021. 7(85). URL: (дата обращения: 21.01.2022).
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This article presents high-quality and modern world-class methods for the fractionation of FERULA SAMARCANDICA root extract. Hexane, chloroform, butanol, ethyl acetate fractions were divided into successful fractions. Sequaterpene compounds, coumarin glycosides were first synthesized from the root part.


В данной статье представлены качественные и современные методы мирового уровня для фракционирования экстракта корня FERULA SAMARCANDICA. Фракции гексана, хлороформа, бутанола, этилацетата были разделены на успешные фракции. Секватерпеновые соединения, гликозиды кумарина впервые были синтезированы из корневой части.


Keywords: coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, steroids, extracts, aromas, hydrochloric acid, phytochemical, cancer.

Ключевые слова: кумарины, флавоноиды, фенолы, терпеноиды, стероиды, экстракты, ароматы, соляная кислота, фитохимия, рак.



Plants have been a constant source of drugs and considerable recent emphasis has been placed on finding novel therapeutic agents from medicinal plants. Many people prefer to use medicinal plants rather than chemical drugs. The Ferula genus from the family of Umbelliferae is a large genus of about 130 species distributed throughout the Mediterranean area and Central Asia [1]. Several species of this genus have been used in folk medicines [2], and investigations on the Ferula species have indicated antinociceptive, anti- inflammatory and antipyretic effects [3], contraceptive action [4,5], and smooth muscle relaxant activity [6,8]. This genus is well documented as a good source of bio- logically active compounds such as sesquiterpene coumarins [9] and sesquiterpene [10]. The Ferula genus has been found to be a rich source of gum resin [1]. The gum resins, which are obtained by incising the roots of several species, are used as spices and drugs in many countries.

Research methods and Experimental part. The roots of Ferula samarcandica (family Apiaceae) were collected in September 2018 from Surkhandarya region, Republic of Uzbekistan. The methods used in the process of investigation on the qualitative analysis as well as separation include thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography (silica gel: 200-300 mesh, Qingdao Marine Chemical Company, China), sephadex LH-20 column chromatography (LH-20 gel: Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Sweden), and HPLC with a ODS-A (50 µm) column produced by YMC Co.Ltd (Japan). The fractions were monitored by TLC, and spots were visualized by heating Silica gel plates sprayed with AlCl3 in EtOH, ammonia vapor, 5% H2SO4 in EtOH withheating 105°C (Table 15). Ultraviolet absorption spectra were measured by an UV spectrophotometr (UV-2550 Shimadzu, Japan). 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 2D NMR spectra were recorded onVarian MR-400, VNMRS-600 NMR spectrometers with TMS as an internal standard.

Table 1.

Chromatography for extraction and fraction of Ferula samarcandica

Column chromatography


Petroleum ether: Acetone

8:1; 5:1; 3:1; 1:1




20:1; 15:1; 9:1; 4:1


4:1; 2:1


10:1; 8:1; 4:1; 2:1


9:1; 4:1


Extraction and fractionation of Ferula  samarcandica root exracts The roots of F. samarcandica (2 kg) was extracted at room temperature by EtOH (95%, 4×12 L), with 5 times duration of extraction (each 24 h). The crude extract suspended with water (1:1) and fractionated successfully with petroleum ether (19.0 g), chloroform (16.0 g), ethyl acetate (32.0 g) and n-butanol (20.0 g). The sesquiterpene compounds, especially sesquiterpene coumarins were detected from the aqueous extract  by two-dimensional paper chromatography in system solvents (n-hexane: EtOAc 4:1-2:1, CHCl3: MeOH 9:1). Sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene coumarin glycosides were detected, using developed TLC plates, examined under UV at 254 nm and after spraying cerium sulfate as developer

The n-BuOH fraction of F. samarcandica (20 g) was subjected to HPD-300 macroporous adsorption resin (3:2, 7:3, 4:1, 19:1) to yield 6 fractions (Fsb-1-Fsb-6). Similarly fractions (Fsb-3, Fsb-5) ware further subjected to an opening ODS A-120 CC, eluted with a gradient solvents MeOH–H2O and MeOH (10-90% and 100-0%) to afford five subfractions. All sub-fractions were analyzed by TLC and similar fractions were combined. Fraction Fso-4 and Fso-5 were investigated on Sephadex LH-20 with MeOH–H2O as a eluent to yield compounds Fsp 21 (15 mg), 23 (50.4 mg) and subfraction of three compounds. Based on TLC analysis, subfractions were selected for HPLC analysis. The n-butanol fraction and all obtained subfractions were analyzed by HPLC using an optimized acetonitrile-water, ranging from 20% acetonitrile to 100% in 60 min at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Samples were prepared in a concentration range from 1–10 mg/mL in methanol.


Figure 1.  Structures of compounds isolated from the roots of F. samarcandica


The isolation of pure compounds was performed by semi-preparative HPLC (45-70; 25-45%), yielding compounds 24 (11.5 mg), 25 (14.8 mg), 26 (17.2 mg), 27 (17. 5 mg), 28 (13 mg) and 29 (18 mg), 30 (17. 5 mg), 31 (14 mg), 32 (11 mg) 33 (8 mg) and  Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extracts of three medicinal plants was carried out using various chemical assay (such as TLC, HPLC, GC-MS) in order to identify either the presence or absence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, coumarins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, glycosides, quinones, tannins, steroids and triterpenoids. The presence of coumarins, secoiridoids, and phenylethanoids is a characteristic feature of Fraxinus species. The secoiridoids occur mainly in the form of glucosides and esters of hydroxyphenylethyl alcohols. Lignans, flavonoids and simple phenolic compounds are also common, but they appear to have more limited distribution. The occurrence of coumarins distinguishes the genus Fraxinus from the other genera in Oleaceae. Effects of extraction solvent: To find the optimal and effective solvent for the extraction process, various solvents were tested as shown in Figure 2. Extraction with 70% to 90% ethanol, preferably from: 60% to 90%, and most preferably: 70%. Yielded extract of 10g (60%), 13.7g (70%), 12.2g (80%), 10g (90%) from 100 g of dried Fraxinus syriaca plant.  In our experiments, 70% ethanol was used due to the highest yield of extraction and the less toxicity of ethanol compared to the other solvents tested in this study (Fig 1).


Figure 2.


Results and Discussions. Compound Fs-22 was obtained as an amorphous, white solid and its empirical formula was determined  as C24H30O6 by HR-ESI-MS (m/z 449.17355 [M+Na]+, calcd 449.17000. The 13C NMR spectrum of Fs-22 displayed 24 carbon signals, with nine being typical of an umbelliferone skeleton and ascribable to a sesquiterpene moiety (Table 16). The 1H NMR spectrum of Fs-22 showed signals due to five aromatic protons at δH 6.28 (1H, d, J = 9.6 Hz, H-3), 7.91(1H, d, J = 9.6 Hz, H-4), 7.56 (1H, d, J = 8.6 Hz, H-5), 7.01 (1H, dd (J = 8.6; 2.4 Hz, H-6), and 7.07 (1H, d, J = 2.4 Hz, H-8), typical of an umbelliferone moiety The sesquiterpene moiety showed four sharp singlet signals, at δH 1.22 (3H, s, H-12ʹ), 1.09 (3H, s H-13ʹ), 1.22 (3H, s, H-14ʹ), 1.03 (3H, s, H-15ʹ) and an oxygenated methylene group at δH 4.52 (1H, dd, J = 10.4; 1.6 Hz, H-11ʹaxi) and 4.29 (1H, dd, J = 10.4; 6.4 Hz, H-11ʹeq).  The HSQC experiment allowed the identification of 10 methines, of which five, at δC 113.2 (C-3), 145.7 (C-4), 130.3 (C-5), 114.3 (C-6), 102.4 (C-8) were characteristic for the umbelliferone unit, and three, at δC 78.8 (C-3ʹ), 65.9 (C-5ʹ), and 61.1 (C-9ʹ), were attributable to the sesquiterpene moiety. Further HSQC correlations were indicative of two aliphatic methylenes at δC 39.7 (C-1ʹ), 27.3 (C-2ʹ), 61.1 (C-7ʹ), an oxygenated methylene at δC 66.8 (C-11ʹ), characteristic for C-11ʹ usually involved in the linkage with the coumarin moiety, and four methyls at δC 25.4 (C-12ʹ), 28.0 (C-13ʹ), 15.8 (C-14ʹ) and 17.7 (C-15ʹ). The HMBC correlations between the proton signal at δH 1.22 (Me-12ʹ) and the carbon resonance at δC 2.45 (C-7ʹ) and between the protons at δH 4.52 and 4.29 attributed to H2-11ʹ with the same carbon C-9ʹ revealed the location of a tertiary methyl group (Me-12ʹ) at C-8. The correlation of Me-12ʹ with the quaternary carbon at δ 75.6 allowed the occurrence of a tertiary alcoholic function to be deduced at C-8ʹ. A further HMBC correlation between the singlet methyl at δH 1.03 (Me-15ʹ) and the carbon resonances at δC 39.7 (C-1ʹ), 41.2 (C-10ʹ), and 61.0 (C-9ʹ) revealed that the singlet methyl should be placed at C-10ʹ.



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Информация об авторах

Postdoctoral Fellow the Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, Xinjiang

докторант, Синьцзянский технический институт физики и химии, Китайская академия наук, Китай, г. Синьцзянь

Assistant, Namangan Institute of Engineering and Technology,  Uzbekistan, Namangan PhD, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Lanzhou, China, Lanzhou

ассистент, Наманганский инженерно-технологический институт, Республика Узбекистан, г. Наманган, докторант, Институт химической физики Ланьчжоу Китайской академии наук Ланьчжоу, Китай, Ланьчжоу

Assistant, Namangan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Uzbekistan, Namangan

ассистент, Наманганский инженерно-технологический институт, Республика Узбекистан, г. Наманган

Assistant, Namangan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Uzbekistan, Namangan

ассистент, Наманганский инженерно-технологический институт, Республика Узбекистан, г. Наманган

Student, Namangan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Republic of Uzbekistan, Namangan

студент, Наманганский Инженерно-Технологический Институт, Республика Узбекистан, г. Наманган

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