Teacher, The chair of Microbiology and biotechnology, Karshi State Universty, Republic of Uzbekistan, Karshi
Schizophyllum сommunasi Fr. ON THE TERRITORY OF UZBEKISTAN ISOLATION OF PURE CULTURE OF MEDICINAL FUNGUS
The article provides information on the isolation of pure cultures of the medicinal fungus Schizophyllum commune. In the experiment, it was found that the medicinal fungus was grown in 2 different nutrient media and the fungus grew in a potato-glucose agar medium to form a complete mycelium. The work was carried out successfully, and a pure culture of Schizophyllum commune was obtained for the first time in Uzbekistan.
В статье представлена информация о выделении чистых культур лекарственного гриба Schizophyllum commune. В ходе эксперимента лекарственный гриб выращивали в 2-х разных питательных средах, гриб рос на картофельно-глюкозной агаровой среде с образованием полноценного мицелия. Работа была проведена успешно, и впервые в Узбекистане была получена чистая культура Schizophyllum commune.
Keywords: Schizophyllum commune, medicinal, fungal, xylotrophic, potato-glucose agar, mycology, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals.
Ключевые слова: Schizophyllum commune, лекарственный, грибной, ксилотрофный, картофельно-глюкозный агар, микология, биотехнология, фармацевтика.
At present, the study of biodiversity of fungi in the Republic, especially large-scale research on medicinal species, is one of the most important scientific and practical issues in the field of mycology, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. The high demand for natural biologically active supplements that strengthen immunity, especially in the context of a pandemic, has become apparent.
In the Kashkadarya region of the Republic of Uzbekistan, no systematic mycological studies of macro fungi, especially medicinal fungi, have been conducted. Pure cultures of medicinal fungi will be the basis for future research in the field of mycology, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals.
In addition, our scientific research to a certain extent serves the production of high-quality products in the Republic and increase its assortment, strengthen the raw material base of natural medicines used in pharmaceuticals, folk medicine and medicine, the introduction of advanced technologies, innovative solutions and scientific achievements in these areas.
Schizophyllum commune Fr. - Xylotrophic fungus is considered one of the most common macro fungal species in the world, distributed on all continents and in different climatic zones except the Arctic. The dried branches of these deciduous and coniferous trees and shrubs are often found on the fences and walls of wooden buildings [3, pp. 112-116].
Currently, drugs based on the fungus Schizophyllum commune are produced in Malaysia, Ukraine, which have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, immune-boosting, hepatoprotective effect. In addition, in Japan, Sonifilan (sonifilan), Schizophillan (schizophillan) and SPG drugs are derived from the culture fluid of this fungus, they are used in the treatment of various oncological diseases [1, p. 661-673; 4, p. 459; 11, p. 499-524].
It is known that Schizophyllum commune Fr. is a branch of the fungus Basidiomycota, class Agaricomycetes, order Agaricales, family Schizophyllaceae, which grows in the trunks of trees and shrubs belonging to the family Schizophyllum. Macromycetes are studied floristically in Uzbekistan by F.G.Axmedova [2, p. 25], M.M. Iminova [8, p. 20], M.M. Xaliqova [9, p. 20].
MATERIALS AND METHOD
In 2019-2022, seasonal scientific trips were organized to the arboretums of Kashkadarya region of the Republic of Uzbekistan, mountainous and desert areas of Yakkabag district, Shahrisabz, and samples of mushrooms were collected. It has been noted that this fungus grows on the trunks of trees [12, p. 401-402]. The fact that the external morphological features of the fungus depend on its growing environment was also evident in the field. The development period of this species showed that it mainly coincides in June-July. We set ourselves the goal of obtaining a pure culture from this common medicinal fungal species and developing an optimal technology for its cultivation in the laboratory in the future.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The fruit body of the identified Schizophyllum commune and the substrate on which the fungus grew, i.e. Prunus domestica L., were observed to grow in the dried bark and woody parts of the tree. The mycelium of the fungus is developed in woody tissue, the surface of the fruit body has a fluffy hairy, kidney-shaped, angular elastic body. It was found to have grown side by side with the substrate (Fig. 1). The length of its fruitbranch is 1-3.5 cm, located individually or in groups. Spores are colorless, cylindrical 4-6 x 1.5-2.5 micmetre.
Figure 1. Growth of Schizophyllum сommune in the substrate
Obtaining a pure culture from the medicinal fungus Schizophyllum commune two types were used using experimental methods: potato-glucose agar and Chapeka nutrient media.
To isolate a clean culture from the fruit body of the fungus Schizophyllum commune, a well-developed, undamaged fruit body was selected and washed in running water to remove it from various iodine substances. Using a sterilized scalpel, cut a small piece of 0.5–1.5 cm from the body of the first peeled fruit, immerse it in 3% hydrogen peroxide solution for a few seconds, and inoculate the nutrient media in the Petri dish and test tubes next to the alcohol in both media. Planted test tubes and Petri dishes were placed in a thermostat at 280C.
The fungus transplanted into the potato-glucose agar medium produced mycelium within 3 days and covered the Petri dish within a week (Fig. 3a). The fungus planted in the Chapeka nutrient medium did not produce any mycelium at all for 3 days, and within a week it was found that Petri had grown sparingly on a plate (Fig. 3b).
Figure 2. Daily growth of fungal mycelium Schizophyllum commune Fr.
The given figure shows the daily growth of the mycelium of the fungus Schizophyllum sommune. It was given a seven-day growth rate in 2 different nutrient media. Potato-glucose in agar medium growth 1st day - 0.3 cm; 2nd day- 0.9; 3rd day-1.4; 4th day - 2; 5th day - 2.6; 6th day-3.3; 7th day-4 cm, while in Chapeka nutrient medium during the first 3 days growth was 0, in short no growth at all, 4th day - 0.2; 5th day-0.5; 6th day-0.9; 7th day- 1.3 cm growth is given. It can be seen that the potato-glucose agar medium was an effective medium for obtaining a pure culture for this species.
Figure 3. Growth of Schizophyllum commune Fr fungus in two different nutrient media
The color of the mycelium in the petri dishes was observed to grow white. The daily growth of mycelium planted in potato-glucose agar medium was 0.5-0.7 cm. It was noted that the mycelium adheres to the substrate and grows densely (Fig. 3a).
In summary, the potato-glucose agar medium was found to be more efficient than other nutrient media in order to isolate pure cultures from the Schizophyllum commune species. The work has been carried out successfully and a pure culture of medicinal fungus has been gained for the first time in Uzbekistan
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