TO STUDY THE AMOUNT OF CHLOROPLAST PIGMENT IN THE LEAVES OF LOCAL AND FOREIGN SOYBEAN VARIETIES GROWN AS A REPEAT CROP IN THE CONDITIONS OF NAVOI AND SAMARKAND REGIONS

ИЗУЧЕНИЕ КОЛИЧЕСТВА ПИГМЕНТА ХЛОРОПЛАСТА В ЛИСТЬЯХ МЕСТНЫХ И ЗАРУБЕЖНЫХ СОРТОВ СОИ, ВЫРАЩИВАЕМЫХ В УСЛОВИЯХ НАВОЙСКОЙ И САМАРКАНДСКОЙ ОБЛАСТЯХ
Kholikova M. Matniyazova K.
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Kholikova M., Matniyazova K. TO STUDY THE AMOUNT OF CHLOROPLAST PIGMENT IN THE LEAVES OF LOCAL AND FOREIGN SOYBEAN VARIETIES GROWN AS A REPEAT CROP IN THE CONDITIONS OF NAVOI AND SAMARKAND REGIONS // Universum: химия и биология : электрон. научн. журн. 2022. 2(92). URL: https://7universum.com/ru/nature/archive/item/13016 (дата обращения: 18.06.2024).
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DOI - 10.32743/UniChem.2022.92.2.13016

 

ABSTRACT

This article presents the results of the analysis of the amount of chlorophyll "a", chlorophyll "b" and total chlorophyll in plant leaves by physiological parameters during the periods of chin leaf, gross shunting, flowering and salting in local and foreign soybean varieties grown as a repeat crop in the conditions of Navoi and Samarkand regions.  In the conditions of the Navoi and Samarkand regions, chlorophyll "a", chlorophyll "b" were found in some varieties and an increase in the total amount of carotenoids, in others - a decrease.

АННОТАЦИЯ

В статье представлены результаты анализа количества хлорофилла «а», хлорофилла «b» и общего хлорофилла в листьях растений по физиологическим параметрам в периоды листопада, грубого шунтирования, цветения и засоления местной и зарубежной сои сорта, выращенных как повторный урожай в условиях Навоийской и Самаркандской областей. В условиях Навоийской и Самаркандской областей хлорофилл «а», хлорофилл «б» были обнаружены у одних сортов увеличения общего количества каротиноидов, у других - уменьшения.

 

Keywords: soybean, variety, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll "a", chlorophyll "b", carotenoid.

Ключевые слова: соя, сорт, общий хлорофилл, хлорофилл «а», хлорофилл «b», каротиноид.

 

INTRODUCTION

In the following years, intensive production of food and animal feed requires an increase in the cultivation of soybeans. Soy dogi belongs to the group of extremely valuable crops, due to its content of 50% protein and up to 28 percent fat. Today, more than 400 different products are produced from soybeans, which are necessary for the national economy. Dani is an environmentally friendly, high-quality raw material used in the food industry. 35% of vegetable oil consumed by the population, which does not accumulate harmful substances in its composition, is obtained from soybeans. After separating the oil, soy insulation is formed, and the protein content in it reaches 75 percent. It is used to prepare children's meals, bread additives, proteins for the sausage industry, products for the confectionery industry, coffee and its substitutes. The industry produces linoleum, the highest quality and most expensive machine paint. [1].

As you know, about 95 percent of the dry matter in a plant is organic matter, which is formed as a result of the photosynthesis process. Most of the organic matter in plants is spent on the formation of reproductive parts. As a rule, the yield primarily depends on the net yield of photosynthesis, the level of the leaf surface, the duration of the absorption period, the amount of organic matter spent on respiration, as well as external and internal factors [2].

Chlorophyll in plant leaves is formed in the presence of special conditions: developed plastids of stroma, rupture, magnesium, iron, etc.  Because pigments are found only in lamellae and granules of phagate plastids.  Magnesium is directly part of the chlorophyll molecule, and iron is part of the enzymes (chlorophyll, etc.) involved in the formation of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is formed only in plants that grow in the light.  In plants grown in a dark place, it does not form [3].

Photosynthesis is one of the main processes in the plant body, the dynamic state of which is determined by the inherent influence of internal and external factors. Any change in environmental conditions primarily affects the intensity and direction of photosynthesis processes. This ultimately leads to changes in the growth, development and productivity of plants. The growth and yield of plants in various climatic and soil conditions will depend on the adaptation of various physiological processes, especially photosynthesis, to environmental conditions. In the process of photosynthesis, pigments are considered light drives, and their physical and chemical properties determine the primary reactions of photosynthesis, that is, the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants is determined by the state and amount of pigments contained in chloroplasts [4,5].

Chlorophyll "a" is the common single pigment for all photosynthetic organisms. Because the light energy absorbed by this pigment can be used directly in photosynthesis reactions. All other pigments, from which light energy is absorbed, also enter chlorophyll "a", thanks to which it is used in photosynthesis.  Chlorophyll "a" is 660-663 nm from the red spectrum and 428-430 nm from the Kuk spectrum, while chlorophyll "6" is 642-644 nm from the red spectrum and 452-455 nm from the blue spectrum. ga absorbs equal rays. Chlorophyll molecules do not absorb green and infrared rays of the light spectrum at all. This means that chlorophyll has the property of selectively absorbing rather than absorbing all light rays. This property of chlorophyll can be determined by observation on a spectroscope that transmits light rays from an uninfected or acetone solution. In the spectroscope, the role of spectral rays absorbed by chlorophyll appears to corrode, returning the rays. In reflected light, chlorophyll appears red. Its ability to fluorescence is evidenced by photochemical activity [3; 7; 8].

RESEARCH OBJECT AND METHODS

The experiments were conducted on the territory of the Samarkand and Navoi regions. Master MM-60, Oyjamol, Tumaris MM -60 varieties planted as a repeat crop were derived from domestic varieties of Sparta of Russian selection, Nena of Kazakh selection as an object of research.

This situation is evidenced by the change in the amount of plastid pigments in the leaves of plants to varying degrees, depending on the biological characteristics of varieties and water supply conditions.

Our experiments were carried out on the territory of the Umid Nature Reserve in the Navoi region. The total land area of Navoi region is 10937.3 thousand hectares and makes up 24.8 percent of the territory of the Republic. It follows from this that the area of land used for agricultural crops in the region is 1.1 thousand hectares or 111.9 thousand hectares, the area to be irrigated and treated is 91.4 thousand hectares. It can be seen that the main land plots of the Navoi region consist mainly of the steppe zone and the foothills of the steppes.  Taking this into account, the influence of the scorching heat of the summer of the Kyzylkum desert at a temperature of 45-500 ° C and above will retain its dominance during the period of growth and development of agricultural crops in the areas of the region engaged in agriculture.  During this period, the wind blowing from the mountain slopes is accompanied by a warm current of the steppe, forming an unpleasant warm garmsel, which in turn negatively affects the development of agricultural crops.  Such weather conditions can be observed in all agricultural areas of the region, Navahor, Kyzyltepe, Konimeh, Nurota, Khatirchi (9).

According to the Navoi regional branch of the Zarafshan Hydrogeological and Reclamation expedition of the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the total available land area is 131840 hectares, of which 16,800 hectares (12.7%) are saline, 89,540 hectares (67.9%) are poorly saline, 22,500 hectares (17.1%) are moderately saline, 3,000 hectares (2.3%) are heavily saline. Our experiments were carried out in the department of Narpai 1 of the Karmaninsky district of the Navoi region.The soils here belong to the lower reaches of the Zarafshan River, to the type of irrigated sod-podzolic meadow soils. Karmanovsky district 0.95 thousand sq. m. km. (95254).

Our experiments were conducted in the territory of Pakhtachi district in Samarkand region. The total land area of Samarkand region on January 1, 2012 is 1677,3 thousand hectares, of which 379,2 thousand hectares are irrigated, 435,8 thousand hectares of arable land, of which 253,7 thousand hectares are irrigated, lalmi arable land is 182,9 thousand hectares.

The main part of the irrigated arable land of the region has a mechanical composition of medium-sized sand (169,9 thousand hectares), which is convenient for dexterity.  The area of Sandy, Sandy and light sandy soils with mechanical composition is 43.2 thousand hectares, the area of heavy sand and clay soils is 43.2 thousand hectares. Irrigation erosion processes are also active in the regions and the area of soils affected by these processes is 99.1 thousand hectares.  In these lands, of course, a complex of measures against irrigation erosion should be applied.  The area of saline soils of different levels in the region is 52.7 thousand hectares, stone mixed lands are 22.6 thousand hectares, densified lands are 5.4 thousand hectares, plaster lands are 0.9 thousand hectares [12].

Soil and climatic conditions of the Pakhtachinsky district.

The Zarafshan River flows through the northern part of the territory (from east to West). Due to the fact that its valley is much smaller than the area of the district, river water is rarely used for irrigation. Crops are irrigated mainly through the Narpai Canal.

The climate is sharply continental, in summer the temperature reaches 42-45 degrees, the average temperature in July is 28 degrees.  The annual precipitation is 230-250 millimeters. On earth, soil zones are distributed according to a certain natural law. Each soil zone occurs in a specific geographical zone. First check if the soil is at this level. V. Dokuchaev and N. M. Simbirtsev determined. The soils of the district are mainly glacial, on the territory of some farms there are saline, loamy or clay. The soils of the experimental land belong to the lower reaches of the Zarafshan River, to the type of irrigated sod-podzolic meadow soils [10].

It follows from the physiological indicators that the total amount of chlorophyll pigments chlorophyll "a", chlorophyll "b" in the leaves of the plant is calculated from the growth point of the soybean plant isolated from the leaf tissue and measured on a spectrophotometer with 96% ethanol (Agilent-60 UV-Vis. 1) is constructed and determined by the following equation [7;8;9].

Ch-a=13.36A664 – 5.19 A649

Ch-b=27.43A649 – 8.12 A664

F [mg/g] = (V *C) / P

Where: F is the chlorophyll content in the leaves of the plant [mg / g]; V is the volume of liquid [ml]; K is the concentration of chlorophyll [ mg / l]; P is the mass of the leaf, [g].

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The content of chlorophyll “a”, chlorophyll “b” and total chlorophyll in plant leaves according to physiological indicators during leaf fall was studied in domestic and foreign soybean varieties grown as a repeat crop in the conditions of Navoi and Samarkand regions and the following results were obtained (Table-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8).

In the conditions of the Samarkand region, the highest indicators of chlorophyll "a" in the leaf fall phase were noted in the group of foreign varieties in the Sparta variety (2.88± 0.05 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties -in the Tumaris MM-60 variety (2.38±0.05 mg/g), and the lowest -in the Nena variety from the group of foreign varieties (2.43± 0.10 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties-in the master Ustoz MM-60 variety (2.16 1.3 mg/g) (Table 1).

Table 1.

The amount of pigments in plant leaves during leaf fall in soybean varieties in the conditions of the Samarkand region

 

Varieties

Chlorophyll "a", mg/g

Chlorophyll "b", mg/g

Carotenoids, mg/g

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

1

Tumaris MM-60

2,38±0,05

7,0

8,3

1,53±0,03

3,1

6,1

1,00±0,01

4,4

5,8

2

Oyjamol

2,37±0,01

3,1

5,6

2,23±0,10

4,1

5,6

0,85±0,05

3,8

5,1

3

Ustoz ММ-60

2,16±0,13

3,8

6,5

2,08±0,11

4,9

5,6

0,91±0,09

5,1

6,7

4

Sparta

2,88±0,05

4,1

5,3

2,22±0,10

5,1

6,6

0,98±0,05

3,9

5,2

5

Nena

2,43±0,10

3,1

4,6

2,23±0,05

4,7

5,3

0,76±0,01

4,7

6,9

 

In the conditions of the Navoi region, the highest index of chlorophyll "a" in the leaf fall phase was observed in the Nena variety from the group of foreign varieties (2.73± 0.11 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties - in the Ustoz MM-60 variety (2.36± 0.10 mg/g), the lowest -in the Kparta variety from the group of foreign varieties (2.58± 0.05 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties -in the Oyjamol variety (2.27± 0.9 mg/g) (Table 2).

Table 2.

The content of pigments in plant leaves during leaf fall in soybean varieties in the conditions of the Navoi region

 

Varieties

Chlorophyll "a", mg/g

Chlorophyll "b", mg/g

Carotenoids, mg/g

±S

G,%

V,%

  ±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

1

Tumaris MM-60

2,28±0,03

4,2

6,3

1,43±0,03

3,9

6,2

1,33±0,03

5,2

5,9

2

Oyjamol

2,27±0,09

4,9

6,6

2,12±0,09

4,3

5,8

2,08±0,01

4,9

5,7

3

Ustoz ММ-60

2,36±0,10

5,1

7,1

2,03±0,11

3,1

4,6

1,94±0,01

5,1

6,1

4

Sparta

2,58±0,05

3,8

5,8

2,02±0,03

3,3

4,8

1,95±0,05

3,8

6,6

5

Nena

2,73±0,11

4,1

5,6

2,23±0,05

4,1

5,3

2,09±0,01

4,5

7,1

 

In the conditions of the Samarkand region, the highest level of chlorophyll "a" in the shoning phase was registered in the group of foreign varieties in the Nena variety (2.54± 0.02 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties - in the Tumaris MM-60 variety (2.93± 0.01 mg/g), and the lowest indicators were in the Sparta variety (1.92± 0.01 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties -in the Oyjamol variety (1.91± 0.03 mg/g). (Table 3).

 

   

Picture 1. Leaves of plants in the pre-flowering period in shade varieties in Navoi and Samarkand regions

Table 3.

The amount of pigments in plant leaves in the period of shonation in soy varieties in the conditions of Samarkand region

 

Varieties

Chlorophyll "a", mg/g

Chlorophyll "b", mg/g

Carotenoids, mg/g

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

1

Tumaris MM-60

2,93±0,01

4,0

5,3

1,61±0,02

3,9

4,2

3,97±0,12

3,8

4,7

2

Oyjamol

1,91±0,03

4,1

4,6

1,88±0,03

3,3

3,8

0,73±0,10

4,2

3,3

3

Ustoz ММ-60

2,54±0,02

3,3

4,5

1,32±0,05

3,1

4,1

1,10 ±0,07

5,1

4,5

4

Sparta

1,92±0,01

4,7

5,3

1,77±0,10

4,3

4,8

0,72±0,20

4,3

2,2

5

Nena

2,54±0,02

3,1

4,6

2,11±0,06

2,8

4,3

0,89±0,15

6,2

3,2

 

In the conditions of the Navoi region, the highest indicator of chlorophyll "a" in the shonaling phase was noted in the Nena variety (2.65± 0.11 mg/g) from the group of foreign varieties, in the Ustoz MM-60 variety (2.13± 0.05 mg/g) from the group of domestic varieties, the lowest indicator in the Sparta variety (1.92± 0.15 mg/g) from the group of foreign varieties, in the Oyjamol variety (1.93± 0.07 mg/g). mg/g) (Table 4).

Table 4.

The amount of pigments in plant leaves in the period of shonation in soybean varieties in the conditions of Navoi region

 

Varieties

Chlorophyll "a", mg/g

Chlorophyll "b", mg/g

Carotenoids, mg/g

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

1

Tumaris MM-60

1,97±0,10

6,2

7,7

7,80±0,10

5,4

6,2

0,76±0,10

6,2

6,8

2

Oyjamol

1,93±0,07

2,5

3,7

1,87±0,25

2,2

3,4

0,83±0,15

2,4

3,5

3

Ustoz ММ-60

2,13±0,05

3,8

4,3

1,93±0.11

3,2

4,1

0,89±0,09

3,6

4,2

4

Sparta

1,92±0,15

4,1

5,4

1,96±0,14

3,9

4,7

0,81±0,25

4,0

5,2

5

Nena

2,65±0,11

3,9

4,6

1,37±0,10

3,5

4,2

1,10±0,20

3,8

4,4

 

In the conditions of the Samarkand region, the highest indicator of chlorophyll "a" in total flowering was noted in the group of foreign varieties in the Nena variety (2.46 ± 0.15 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties in the Tumaris MM-60 variety (3.45±0.09 mg/g), and the lowest indicators in the group of foreign varieties-in the Sparta variety (2.37± 0.08 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties-in the master variety Ustoz MM-60 (2.19± 0.29 mg/g) (Table 5).

Table 5.

The number of pigments in plant leaves during the general flowering period of soybean varieties in the conditions of the Samarkand region

 

Varieties

Chlorophyll "a", mg/g

Chlorophyll "b", mg/g

Carotenoids, mg/g

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

1

Tumaris MM-60

3,45±0,09

2,8

3,6

2,14±0,16

2,3

3,5

1,62±0,07

2,7

3,5

2

Oyjamol

2,31±0,20

6,5

7,2

9,70±0,11

5,2

6,5

0,99±0,02

6,3

7,1

3

Ustoz ММ-60

2,19±0,29

4,3

4,9

8,04±0,05

3,8

4,4

0,84±0,04

4,1

4,7

4

Sparta

2,37±0,08

3,2

5,6

9,20±0,04

3,1

4,8

0,99±0,14

3,0

5,3

5

Nena

2,46±0,15

2,2

6,9

1,40±0,09

1,9

4,3

1,01±0,06

2,1

5,9

 

In the conditions of the Navoi region, the highest index of chlorophyll “a” in total flowering was noted in the Sparta variety from the group of foreign varieties (1.94± 0.01 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties -in the Tumaris MM-60 variety (2.87± 0.26 mg/g), the lowest -in the Nena variety from the group of foreign varieties (1.87± 0.06 mg/g), from the group of domestic varieties-in the Oyjamol variety (1.38±0.02 mg/g). / d) (Table 6).

Table 6.

The number of pigments in plant leaves during the general flowering period of soybean varieties in the conditions of the Navoi region

 

Varieties

Chlorophyll "a", mg/g

Chlorophyll "b", mg/g

Carotenoids, mg/g

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

1

Tumaris MM-60

2,87±0,26

3,7

7,8

1,36±0,02

2,9

6,8

1,330±0,03

3,5

5,8

2

Oyjamol

1,38±0,02

4,5

5,6

6,61±0,05

3,9

4,5

1,48±0,14

4,5

4,9

3

Ustoz ММ-60

2,20±0,05

5,8

6,2

9,60±0,01

4,8

5,9

2,06±0,01

5,3

6,1

4

Sparta

1,94±0,01

5,4

6,9

7,70±0,25

5,1

6,5

0,62±0,02

5,3

6,6

5

Nena

1,87±0,06

3,8

4,7

7,91±0,35

3,5

4,5

1,02±0,17

3,6

4,6

 

In the conditions of the Samarkand region, the highest indicators of chlorophyll "a" in the general phase of beans were noted in the group of foreign varieties in the Sparta variety (3.25± 0.15 mg/g), in the group of domestic varieties -in the Tumaris MM-60 variety (2.47± 0.22 mg/g), and the lowest indicators -in the Nena variety (3.22±0.24 mg/g), in the group of domestic varieties-in the Oyjamol variety (2.21± 0.29 mg/g) (Table 7).

 

       

Picture 2. Leaves of flowering plants in soybean varieties in Navoi and Samarkand regions

 

Table 7.

The content of pigments in plant leaves during the general ripening period in soybean varieties in the conditions of the Samarkand region

 

Varieties

Chlorophyll "a", mg/g

Chlorophyll "b", mg/g

Carotenoids, mg/g

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

1

Tumaris

2,47±0,22

3,5

4,3

1,17±0,01

3,2

4,1

1,62±0,07

3,4

4,2

2

Oyjamol

2,21±0,29

4,6

5,9

9,80±0,11

4,2

5,5

0,99±0,02

4,4

5,6

3

Ustoz ММ-60

2,23±0,13

3,9

6,7

1,04±0,06

3,6

6,1

0,84±0,20

3,7

6,4

4

Sparta

3,25±0,15

5,2

6,2

1,73±0,05

4,7

5,8

0,99±0,04

5,0

6,1

5

Nena

3,22±0,24

3,6

4,8

1,73±0,15

3,3

4,5

1,01±0,06

3,5

4,6

 

In the conditions of the Navoi region, the highest index of chlorophyll “a” in the general phase of cultivation was noted in the Nena variety (3.23± 0.07 mg/g) from the group of foreign varieties, in the Tumaris MM-60 variety (3.17±0.09 mg/g) from the group of domestic varieties, the lowest - in the Sparta variety (2.93± 0.05 mg/g) from the group of foreign varieties, in the Ustoz MM-60 variety  (2.43 0.08 mg/g) (Table 8).

Table 8.

The content of pigments in plant leaves during the general ripening of soybean varieties in the conditions of the Navoi region

 

Varieties

Chlorophyll "a", mg/g

Chlorophyll "b", mg/g

Carotenoids, mg/g

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

±S

G,%

V,%

1

Tumaris ММ-60

3,17±0,09

5,2

6,8

1,65±0,15

4,8

6,3

1,53±0,05

4,9

5,3

2

Oyjamol

2,54±0,01

4,3

5,1

1,17±0,10

3,9

4,8

1,12±0,11

4,1

4,9

3

Ustoz ММ-60

2,43±0,08

6,6

7,5

1,22±0,40

5,8

6,5

1,16±0,20

6,2

7,1

4

Sparta

2,93±0,05

6,7

7,2

1,55±0,01

5,8

6,9

1,43±0,10

6,2

7,1

5

Nena

3,23±0,07

5,3

6,8

1,83±0,08

4,8

6,5

1,51±0.8

5,1

6,6

  

   

Picture 3. Leaves during the general ripening of soybean varieties in the conditions of the Navoi and Samarkand regions

 

CONCLUSION

Thus, when studying the content of chlorophyll "a", chlorophyll "b" and total carotenoid by physiological characteristics in domestic and foreign soybean varieties in the conditions of the Samarkand and Navoi regions, it was found that the content of plastid pigments in the leaves of soybean varieties varies depending on the biological characteristics of the varieties. The presence of a sufficient number of plastid pigments ensures the rate of their growth, development and yield, expressing to a certain extent the intensity of photosynthetic processes in the plant. The fact that the amount of chlorophyll "a“ in the leaves of a soybean plant is higher than the amount of chlorophyll ”b" indicates that the soybean plant is a light-loving plant.

 

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Информация об авторах

Senior Lecturer, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Uzbekistan, Tashkent region, Chirchik city, Amir Temur

ст. преп. кафедра биологии, Факультет естественных наук Чирчикского государственного педагогического института, Узбекистан, Ташкентская область, город Чирчик, Амир Темур

Researcher, Candidate of Biological Sciences Laboratory of Ecological Genetics and Plant Physiology, Institute of Genetics and Experimental Plant Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan, Tashkent Region, Kibray District, Yukori-Yuz

исследователь, канд. биол. наук, лаборатория экологической генетики и физиологии растений, Институт генетики и экспериментальной биологии растений, Академия наук Республики Узбекистан, Узбекистан, Ташкентская область, Кибрайский район, Юкори-Юз

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