DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE IN KAZAKHSTAN UNDER THE FRAMEWORK OF “ONE BELT ONE ROAD” (OBOR) PROGRAM

РАЗВИТИЕ ТРАНСПОРТНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ В КАЗАХСТАНЕ В РАМКАХ ПРОГРАММЫ “ОДИН ПОЯС И ОДИН ПУТЬ”
Smagulova A. Chen Q. Guo J.
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Smagulova A., Chen Q., Guo J. DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE IN KAZAKHSTAN UNDER THE FRAMEWORK OF “ONE BELT ONE ROAD” (OBOR) PROGRAM // Universum: экономика и юриспруденция : электрон. научн. журн. 2023. 2(101). URL: https://7universum.com/ru/economy/archive/item/14843 (дата обращения: 17.06.2024).
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DOI - 10.32743/UniLaw.2023.101.2.14843

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to investigate the development of elements of transport logistics infrastructure under the influence of Chinese investment within «One Belt One Road» initiative. For this purpose, the regression analysis was used. As a result, a number of quantitative values of the impact of Chinese investments were obtained using the example of three elements of the logistics infrastructure. The resulting values are positive. As a result, we can conclude that Chinese investments have a significant positive impact on the transport infrastructure of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

АННОТАЦИЯ

Цель исследования состоит в изучении развития элементов транспортно-логистической инфраструктуры под влиянием китайских инвестиций в рамках инициативы «Один пояс – Один путь». Для достижения указанной цели использовался регрессионный анализ. В результате был получен ряд количественных измерений, определяющий влияние китайских инвестиций на логистическую инфраструктуру. Результаты исследования позволили сделать вывод о существенном положительном влиянии китайских инвестиций на транспортную инфраструктуру Республики Казахстан.

 

Keywords: «One Belt - One Road» initiative, logistic infrastructure, logistic elements, China, Kazakhstan.

Ключевые слова: инициатива «Один пояс – один путь», логистическая инфраструктура, логистические элементы, Китай, Казахстан.

 

Introduction.

The main goal of developing and implementing the One Belt - One Road initiative is to develop a strategy for the progressive economic development of the regions on the territory of the former Great Silk Road. The One Belt, One Road Initiative is in many ways promoting Chinese investment expansion of the regions. Many significant investment projects worth more than 18 million have been implemented in the Republic of Kazakhstan [1]. As part of the implementation of this strategy, it is extremely important to study how the investments of the Chinese side affect the implementation of the logistics infrastructure of the Republic of Kazakhstan [2]. The logistics infrastructure is not static and consists of many interconnected elements within which a significant number of companies operate. The significance of the presented study is due to the need to attract additional investment to the Republic of Kazakhstan in order to develop its trade potential.

Research purpose.

The purpose of this article is to study the impact of investments made by China in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the framework of the One Belt - One Road initiative on the development of the country's logistics infrastructure.

Research methods.

To evaluate this initiative, it is advisable to use the regression analysis technique. The regression model will allow you to find out how China's investment in the Republic of Kazakhstan as part of the One Belt - One Road initiative has affected various elements of the logistics infrastructure, namely their development in percentage terms. The regression model requires a certain degree of verification, which will also carried out as part of the presented econometric analysis.

Literature review.

Before studying in detail the features of the functioning of the logistics infrastructure of the Republic of Kazakhstan and its development under the influence of investments, it is advisable to consider in more detail the elements of the logistics infrastructure. Analysis of the logistics infrastructure in the context of its elements allows you to study the strengths and weaknesses of the logistics infrastructure separately. It is noticed that the logistics infrastructure includes six key elements (Figure 1).

 

Figure 1. Elements of logistics infrastructure

 

In accordance with the presented figure, the elements of the logistics infrastructure make it possible to analyze the features of its functioning from a variety of positions (from the position of state regulation, from the position of public control, from the position of technical developments, and so on) [3]. For example, the Transport Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan acts as an institutional element, whose tasks include the regulation of logistics infrastructure, including the distribution of investments received from Chinese investors for the development of infrastructure facilities. The tasks of the public element include control over the implementation of socially significant tasks in the field of building effective relationships between carriers, government agencies, as well as other participants in the logistics market. An example of the work of a public element is the activity of the Atameken Chamber of Entrepreneurs, which protects the interests of entrepreneurs in the regulation of tariffs for the provision of transport services and the adoption of new bills.

An example of a scientific element is the activities of scientific institutions that fulfill orders from transport companies and other market participants. Orders can be related to the optimization of routes, the creation of effective schemes for interaction with customers, the development of bills, and so on. The most famous example of the activity of a scientific element is the activity of the Research and Design Institute of Transport and Communications LLP. This scientific institute is one of the largest in Central Asia; its activities related to the development of significant scientific projects commissioned by clients. Among the significant activities of this scientific institute, the following can be distinguished [4]:

- Railway projects, including those related to the organization of railway transportation between the Republic of Kazakhstan and China within the framework of the One Belt - One Road project.

- Projects related to the design of transport facilities, including facilities within the framework of the One Belt - One Road project, for example, the Khorgos International Trade Zone.

- Development of private research projects at the request of customers. The role of customers can be both transport organizations and other persons interested in organizing transportation.

- Projects in the field of international consulting related to the organization of the work of participants in logistics chains within the framework of the One Belt - One Road project.

As for the activities of the regulatory element, a significant number of legal and consulting companies operate within the framework of the One Belt - One Road project. Most companies are engaged in providing legal assistance to participants in the market of logistics operations, including contractual work [5]. The service element includes the activities of banks and customs brokers. As of 2022, a branch of 21 commercial banks operates in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The technical element is associated with the development of various software applications and routes at the request of carrier companies.

Thus, each of the presented elements of the logistics infrastructure is associated with the organization of efficient transport services on the routes of the One Belt - One Road project.

Research process.

As of the end of November 2021, 652.2 thousand goods were transported through the Republic of Kazakhstan, which is 30.8% more than in the same period of 2020 [6]. Investments of the Chinese side in the infrastructure of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period 2013-2020 amounted to $18.5 billion, of which $3.8 billion were directed to the country's transport sector. It is advisable to analyze the relationship between investments in the logistics infrastructure of the Republic of Kazakhstan within the framework of the One Belt - One Road project and the number of services provided by various elements of the logistics infrastructure for the period 2013-2020. The analysis made on the example of the work of research institutes, the regulatory element (legal and consulting companies), and the service element (Table 1).

Table 1.

Dependence of Chinese investments and the development of elements of the logistics infrastructure of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2013-2020

Period

Investment in logistics infrastructure ($ million) (х1)

Costs for scientific element, ($ million) (у1)

Costs for regulatory element, ($ million) (у2)

Costs for service element, ($ million) (у3)

2013

418

143

729

396

2014

304

147

697

385

2015

342

114

496

287

2016

836

85

345

189

2017

722

137

531

334

2018

532

124

488

323

2019

380

143

529

354

2020

266

112

517

346

*Source: [7]

 

Within the framework of the presented analysis, it is advisable to formulate three types of regressions between investments (x1) and each of the analyzed elements of the logistics infrastructure of Kazakhstan (research, regulatory and service).

In conclusion, of the study, the following regression equations were obtained:

For scientific element: y = 0.0468 x + 147.878

For the regulatory element: y = 0.341 x + 703.575

For service element: y = 0.213 x + 427.964

Results

In accordance with the presented analysis, in the case of using a unit of investment, the number of services of scientific institutions increases by an average of 4.68%, services of consulting and legal companies (regulatory element) - increases by 34.1%, and services of a service element (banks, insurance companies, customs brokers - increases by 21.3%.

Conclusion

The purpose of the study was to investigate the development of elements of transport logistics infrastructure under the influence of Chinese investment. For this purpose, the regression analysis was used. As a result, a number of quantitative values of the impact of Chinese investments were obtained using the example of three elements of the logistics infrastructure. The resulting values are positive. As a result, we can conclude that Chinese investments have a significant positive impact on the transport infrastructure of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

 

References:

  1. Iskakov G.A., Kegenbekov Zh.K. The role of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the project "Belt and Road Initiative" // Scientific problems of water transport. 2021. No. 67. pp. 67-74.
  2. Gasparyan K. Participation of Kazakhstan in China's initiative "One Belt - One Road" // Post-Soviet Studies. 2019. No. 5. pp. 6-18.
  3. Shulzhenko T.G., Yakovleva D.O. Economic substantiation of strategies for the development of digital logistics infrastructure in supply chains. Izvestiya St. Petersburg State University of Economics. 2022. No. 2 (134). pp. 101-107.
  4. Official Internet portal of LLP "Scientific Research and Design Institute of Transport and Communications" // [Electronic source]. Access: https://niitk.kz/ (20.12.2022).
  5. Bochegov M.A., Savchenko T.O. The influence of modern logistics elements on the development of logistics // Problems of Science. 2022. No. 1 (69). pp. 14-25.
  6. How Kazakhstan makes money on the One Belt - One Road project // [Electronic source]. Access: https://forbes.kz//finances/markets/ostaetsya_li_proekt_odin_poyas_-_odin_put_po-prejnemu_perspektivnyim/? (20.12.2022).
  7. Analysis of trade in the Republic of Kazakhstan // [Electronic source]. Access: https://tradereport.kz/? (20.12.2022).
Информация об авторах

Magistr, Zhejiang university of Science and Technology, China, Hangzhou

магистр, Чжэцзянский научно-технический университет, Китай, Ханчжоу

Doctor of Economics, lecturer of Zhejiang university of Science and Technology, China, Hangzhou

доктор экономических наук, преподаватель, Чжэцзянский научно-технический университет, Китай, Ханчжоу

Professor of Zhejiang university of Science and Technology Zhejiang university of Science and Technology, China, Hangzhou

профессор, Чжэцзянский научно-технический университет, Китай, Ханчжоу

Журнал зарегистрирован Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор), регистрационный номер ЭЛ №ФС77-54432 от 17.06.2013
Учредитель журнала - ООО «МЦНО»
Главный редактор - Толстолесова Людмила Анатольевна.
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