CRITERIA OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF TIMELY DELIVERY OF CARGO BY AUTOMOBILE VEHICLES

КРИТЕРИИ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ СВОЕВРЕМЕННОЙ ДОСТАВКИ ГРУЗОВ АВТОМОБИЛЬНЫМИ ТРАНСПОРТНЫМИ СРЕДСТВАМИ
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Ravshanov M.N., Zhuraev M.N., Yusufkhonov Z.Y. CRITERIA OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF TIMELY DELIVERY OF CARGO BY AUTOMOBILE VEHICLES // Universum: экономика и юриспруденция : электрон. научн. журн. 2022. 8(95). URL: https://7universum.com/ru/economy/archive/item/14060 (дата обращения: 02.03.2024).
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ABSTRACT

The article presents the criteria for timely and regular delivery of goods and effective management of warehouse stocks, criteria for their provision and substantiated indicators of their economic efficiency. 

АННОТАЦИЯ

В статье приведены критерии своевременной и регулярной доставки грузов и эффективного управления складскими запасами, критерии их обеспечения и обоснованы показатели их экономической эффективности.

 

Keywords: transportation efficiency assessment, cargo delivery, economic efficiency, productivity, availability of funds, user needs.

Ключевые слова: критерии эффективности перевозок, доставка грузов, экономическая эффективность, производительность транспортных средств, потребности потребителя.

 

For our developing country, the organization of an effective system for the delivery of goods is an important task. Through the timely and efficient delivery of goods on the domestic market, it is possible to achieve, firstly, ensuring the coordination of the movement of finished products and raw materials, and reducing prices for products supplied to consumers. When organizing and managing the transportation of goods, it is necessary to establish requirements and goals arising from the characteristics of the full satisfaction of the needs of consumers in the volume of transportation, the possibilities of transportation by road and the features of the organization of the transport process on the routes.

In modern conditions, consumers place high demands on the quality of transport services, processes and results of transportation. Among these requirements are the following:

- reliability of transportation results;

- the minimum level of transport costs;

- delivery of cargo in the shortest possible time;

- continuity and regularity of the process of delivery of goods, compliance with the needs of consumers;

- guaranteed delivery time;

- maintaining the quality of the cargo during transportation and ensuring the safety of the transportation process;

- organization of transportation in accordance with the peculiarities of the production of consumer enterprises;

- "organization of transportation from door to door";

- create conditions for the reception and transfer of goods, as well as opportunities for the provision of additional services, etc.

Based on these requirements, when organizing and managing transportation, it will be necessary to analyze the elementary processes of transportation and the patterns of formation of their indicators, and on this basis to scientifically and methodically substantiate quantitative models that link the results of transportation with process indicators.

In order to effectively meet the needs of consumers in volumes when organizing transportation, reduce transportation costs, and increase the productivity of vehicles, a number of research works have been carried out to optimize cargo transportation in the national economy.

D.I.Zarudnev in his dissertation research studied the influence of the main factors affecting productivity, the cost of transportation [5].

In the studies of A.U.Kuziev, the issues of the optimal distribution of cargo flows in the regional transport network and the optimal development of the transport network to ensure the future values ​​of these flows are considered [6].

The issues of ensuring the continuity of transport services in production processes, optimizing economic management and managing the tasks of reducing material costs on the basis of logistics concessions are considered in detail in the scientific works of such prominent researchers as D.J. Bowersox, A.V. Velmozhin, V.A. Gudkov, L. B. Mirotin, G. A. Samatov, Sh. A. Butaev, M. N. Zhuraev and others [2,3,4].

The modern quantitative basis of the theory of road transport shows in many ways that the process of transportation and the performance of vehicles are based on their average values. However, in modern conditions, it is necessary to take into account the possibilities of meeting the real needs of consumers in the volumes and types of transportation, which is formed as a result of their daily activities.

One of the important criteria that determine the efficient operation of transport is its regularity of cargo transportation. It is necessary to ensure timely and regular delivery of goods, as well as the presence of a minimum amount of their reserve in warehouses. By reducing the delivery time (te) of the goods, it will be possible to allocate time for the use of part of the material resources in circulation. In quantitative terms, the speed of cargo delivery is determined by the ratio of the distance traveled (lb) to the delivery time (te): 

Ve= lb / te ; [km/h].

When determining the economic efficiency resulting from an increase in the speed of delivery of goods, its price as a product is taken into account. If the price of 1 ton of cargo is equal to Sgr, and the shipped volume is equal to Qj, then it can be measured by the price of cargo that is transported faster than with economic efficiency ∆S, which is due to a decrease in delivery speed by ∆T time, i.e.

∆S= SgrQj ∙ ∆T

The indicator of delivery time is especially important when managing the transportation of perishable goods and organizing transport work during the harvest of agricultural products. Road transport is considered to be the most efficient mode of transport for the transportation of perishable goods. The share of road transport in the transportation of perishable goods is about 80% of the total. Reducing delivery times is an important factor to ensure product quality, not a slowdown in harvesting. Indicators that determine the decrease in the quantity or quality of cargo during transportation play an important role in evaluating options for transporting perishable goods. Such indicators are widely used to justify rational transportation options when choosing the types of vehicles, pallets and containers, reloading vehicles that are used in transportation. At the same time, delivery time is an important indicator that determines the efficiency in intercity transportation of goods. In conditions requiring the transportation of large volumes of goods over long distances, reducing the mass of products in circulation will provide economic efficiency for the national economy.

The analyzes showed that the volume needs of both the shipper and the buyer differ in quantity over time. The volumes of goods that are consumed daily from storage facilities and transported to replenish them, as well as the volume of stocks that arise under the influence of these changes over time, change.

Although there is sufficient stock in the warehouse, if the daily traffic volume is increased, the following situations may occur:

- firstly, the unloading and placement of the listed goods will require excessive costs due to a decrease in the possibility of receiving goods;

- secondly, the downtime of vehicles at the points of unloading cargo will increase. At the same time, the productivity of vehicles decreases, and the cost of freight transportation increases.

If a relatively small amount of cargo is transported with insufficient stock, then in subsequent periods the enterprise will be at risk of interruption of the production process due to shortages or interruptions in raw materials.

The actual need of the consumer in the volume of cargo transportation in one day depends on the remaining reserve of cargo (Qz) for the previous day and on the volume of consumption of cargo (Qu) on the same day. If Qz>Qu, then on this day there is no need to transport cargo to this consumer. If, on the contrary, qz<Qu, then in this case, from the point of view of ensuring the continuity of the enterprise's production, it is necessary to provide it with at least (Qz-Qu) - tons of cargo. The expected value of Qu the next day has the character of a probability that cannot be accurately determined. In this regard, the excess of the amount of daily stocks over any value of the consumption parameter is usually achieved, which allows the enterprise to continuously meet the needs of production at any random value of the amount of consumed and transported goods.

Thus, the first and most important issue in the management of cargo transportation across the territory is the determination of traffic volumes, taking into account changes in consumer stocks. This is achieved by maximizing the probability of complete satisfaction of the needs of consumers in the volume of cargo transportation or by minimizing the sum of differences between the needs of consumers and the volume of cargo transported by them in real terms [1].

If we designate the demand of the consumer u in the volume of transportation as , and the actual volume of transported cargo as , then minimizing the difference between the volume of transported cargo and the needs of consumers is quantified as follows:

 

here Ju is the set of transport routes associated with consumer u and the set of vehicle types used in the transportation of goods in each j-route;

If we denote by Pu the probability of not meeting the consumer's need for transportation, then the efficiency function is formulated as follows:

In case of failure to deliver the required amount of cargo to consumers, we denote the price of one ton of cargo of lost efficiency cu for consumer u, then the condition for minimizing the efficiency lost by all consumers will be expressed as a general criterion, that is,

The main requirement for the delivery of the required amount of goods for the needs of consumers is to reduce the cost of transporting goods, reducing the share of transportation costs in the cost of goods. This issue is one of the most important, since an increase in the share of transport costs in the cost of production of industries has a direct impact on the competitiveness of products manufactured in the country.

It is important to take into account that when organizing cargo transportation in the least cost option, vehicles with different carrying capacity have different levels of cost of cargo transportation on routes with different distances.

Let the performance Qij of the i- type car on each j-route and the cost of transporting a ton of cargo Sij be known. Then for the u -th consumer, the criterion for ensuring the minimum average transport costs (Su) for the consumer and the criterion for organizing the transport process in efficient options (F) is expressed as follows:    

 ва

here J and I, respectively, are sets of routes and vehicle types; Qj is the volume of cargo transported along the j-th route; Tj - fixed average price of transportation of one ton of cargo along this route,  - the volume of cargo transportation along the j-th route, i.e.

In the face of great demand for the transportation capabilities of road transport enterprises, it is necessary to attach great importance to improving the overall performance of vehicles.

It is known that the daily performance of the car depends on many factors, namely

   

It is obvious that the technical and operational indicators achieved as a result of the use of each of the above types of vehicles of the i-th type when transporting goods along the j-route, taking into account the values , when organizing the transport process, allow us to determine the options that provide the highest productivity of the fleet.

One of the important criteria that determine the efficient operation of transport is the correspondence of loading and unloading addresses to the volume of transported cargo and managing the organization of cargo transportation in options that ensure maximum performance of the channels for sending, loading and unloading and receiving goods at consumer addresses from an economic point of view.

The discrepancy between the throughput of the receiving and departure points to the established volume of traffic leads to a decrease in the overall productivity of the fleet, which results in an increase in the cost of transporting vehicles due to downtime. Such a discrepancy is determined by parameters such as the cost of economic losses as a result of inefficient waiting times[7]. At the same time, in most cases, the management of cargo transportation in options that ensure maximum performance of the channels of departure, loading-unloading and reception at the addresses of consumers, the effective holding of the harvest season on time - plays an important role from the point of view of the economy of the national economy [8].

In conclusion, it can be noted that, given the high level of requirements for the results and quality of transport services provided to consumers today, the article focuses on the scientific justification of the system structure of transport service processes aimed at ensuring the reliability and compliance of the results of transportation with the needs of consumers, delivery of goods of various names consumers in a certain volume and terms, as well as reducing its cost.

 

References:

  1. Бутаев Ш.А., Мирзааҳмедов Б.М., Жўраев М.Н., Дўрмонов А.Ш., Баҳодиров Б. Ташиш жараёнларини моделлаштириш ва оптималлаштириш. Тошкент: ФАН, 2009. -268 б.
  2. Саматов Г.А., Камильджанов Б.И., Ф.Р.Галимова. Логистик бошқарув концепциялари ва моделлари. -Тошкент: Фан ва технология, 2015.  – 232 б.
  3. Вельможин А.В., Гудков В.А., Миротин Л.Б. Теория организация и управление автомобильными перевозками: логистический аспект формирования перевозочных процессов. Волгоград: РПК «Политехник», 2001. -179 с.
  4. Бауэрсокс Дональд  Дж., Клосс Дейвид Дж. Логистика: интегрированная цепь поставок. – М: Олимп-Бизнес, 2017.- 640 с.
  5. Заруднев Д.И. Методика выбора автотранспортных средств для перевозки грузов :Дис. канд. техн. Наук, Омск:2005.– 237 c.
  6. Shermukhamedov A.A., Kuziev A.U. Solution of the problem of optimal distribution of cargo flows in the region and the development of its transport network/ International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD) ISSN (P): 2249–6890; ISSN (E): 2249–8001 Vol. 10, Issue 3, Jun 2020, 11337-11348.
  7. Жураев Мухиддин Нортожиевич, Ахмедов Дилмурод Тошпулат Угли, Мустанов Одилбек Ганишерович, & Юсуфхонов Зокирхон Юсуфхон Угли (2022). ОЦЕНКА ВЛИЯНИЯ СОСТОЯНИЯ ДОРОЖНОЙ ИНФРАСТРУКТУРЫ НА ХАРАКТЕР КООРДИНАЦИОННОЙ МОДЕЛИ. Universum: технические науки, (2-3 (95)), 19-24.
  8. Juraev Muxiddin, Yusufkhanov Zokirkhon, & Akhmedov Dilmurod (2022). MODELING THE SYSTEM OF VEHICLE AND DRIVER ACTIVITY. Universum: технические науки, (1-3 (94)), 71-73.
Информация об авторах

Tashkent State Transport University, Associate Professor of "Transport Logistics", Republic Uzbekistan, Tashkent

доцент кафедры “Транспортная логистика”, Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет, Republic Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Tashkent State Transport University, Associate Professor of the Department “Transport Logistics”, Republic Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет, доцент кафедры “Транспортная логистика”, Республика Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

Tashkent State Transport University Assistant of the department “Transport logistics”, Republic Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет ассистент кафедры “Транспортная логистика”, Republic Uzbekistan, Tashkent

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