Nukus branch of the Uzbekistan State Institute of Arts and Culture, Associate Professor of “Folk Art”, Uzbekistan, Nukus
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE ART OF BAKHSHI AND DASTAN IN NEW UZBEKISTAN: ACHIEVED RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
The article discusses the results achieved in recent years in the art of bakhshi and epic in New Uzbekistan and their analysis. At the same time, the sides exchanged views on international cultural cooperation and the development of our national culture. Suggestions and recommendations were made on the development of bakhshi and epic performance in the new Uzbekistan.
В статье рассматриваются результаты, достигнутые за последние годы в искусстве бахши и эпоса в Новом Узбекистане, и их анализ. В то же время стороны обменялись мнениями по вопросам международного культурного сотрудничества и развития нашей национальной культуры. Были внесены предложения и рекомендации по развитию искусство бахши и эпического исполнение в Новом Узбекистане.
Keywords: bakhshi, epic, art, process, culture, performance, festival, narrator, national culture.
Ключевые слова: бахши, дастан, искусство, процесс, культура, исполнение, фестиваль, жырау, национальная культура.
In recent years, the restoration and preservation of our national culture and art in our country as an effective way to fight ignorance and enlightenment in general, as an effective way to fight against ignorance, in general, to strengthen the spiritual immunity of young people. Extensive work is done to popularize, research, and promote them.
New Uzbekistan has established mutually beneficial and promising cooperation in the international arena in the socio-humanitarian, cultural and educational spheres. Thanks to the initiatives and efforts of President Sh. Mirziyoyev, the centuries-old spiritual heritage of our ancestors has received a new look and respect for our national culture and has determined the prospects for its development. International cultural and educational events held in the new Uzbekistan have given impetus to the promotion and further development of our country’s rich material and spiritual heritage around the world. These reforms have been widely recognized not only in Central Asia but also around the world as the pace of cultural development of New Uzbekistan.
“Political, trade, economic, investment, transport and communication and cultural-humanitarian relations with the Russian Federation, the People’s Republic of China, the United States, Japan, South Korea, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the European Union, and Asian countries. We pay special attention to the further development of the country,” the President Mirziyoyev said. [1: 62] This cooperation is also reflected in the field of culture and arts.
It is no exaggeration to say that a great creative school has been created in the development of the art of bakhshi. Resolutions of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on November 1st, 2018 “Holding the International Festival of the bakhshi art” and May 14th, 2019 “On measures to further develop the art of bakhshi” and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan on April 26th, 2018 and on September 23rd, 2019, “Measures to improve the activities of the Republican Center for Bakhshi Art and the Fund for the Development of Bakhshi Art under it.” [2: 3]
“Poetry and generosity are our national pride. It is necessary to convey to our people the noble values underlying it,” the President said. In passing on the art of bakhshi to the next generation and its further development, special attention should be paid to the following issues:
• recording the performances of bakhshis on audio and videotapes, turning them into books, creating films based on these epics;
• incorporate into the school education system our epics, which call for kindness in educating young people in the spirit of national values, encourage them to be patriotic, and courageous;
• take measures to revive the existing schools of bakhshi in the regions by further strengthening the fundamental scientific research of epics.
Today’s young bakhshis have created a special website and mobile application of the art of bakhshi and our epics, based on the requirements of the time, to teach how to memorize a single epic. The text of epics, audios of bakhshi performances, information about bakhshis working in our country, and regular coverage in the media are also on the agenda. [3: 2]
In our country, the tradition of singing epics in ancient times developed in three directions. The first direction is in Bulungur, Narpay, Nurata, Kurgan, Shahrisabz, Kamay, Sherabad, Uzbek-Lakay schools of poetry in southern Tajikistan, played the drums and performed alone, with a muffled voice. The second line is performed in Khorezm with a narrow, dutar, gijjak, harmonium, bulamon, koshnay, doira accompaniment, sometimes alone, sometimes in pairs, with an open voice. The third line is spoken aloud in the Fergana Valley accompanied by a dutar. The most talented representatives of the Kurgan school of epic poetry were Ergash Jumanbulbul oglu (1868–1937) and Polkan poet (1874–1941). Epics such as “Miskol Pari”, “Avazkhan”, “Hasankhan” were written. Bulungur Epic School was famous for performing heroic epics. The talented representative of this school was Fozil Yuldash oglu (1872–1955), who wrote such works as “Alpomish”, “Yodgor”, “Yusuf and Ahmad”, “Zulfizar”, “Malikai ayyor”, “Nurali”, “Murodkhan”, “Shirin and Shakar”. narrated the epics to the rhythm. In the XIX century, there was a school of epic poetry in connection with the village of Kamay in the Kashkadarya oasis. This school unites about 60 bakhshis living in Dehkanabad and Guzar districts, such as Abdukarim Juyruq, Mulla Kholnazar oglu, Bazar Sherqul’s, Hazratqul bakhshi Khudoiberdiev, and creatively cooperates with Shahrisabz epic school.
Among Nama’s epics were “Nurali’s Youth” (1972-1977), “Lady” (1963), and others. Another major branch of the art of bakhshi is the Sherabad School of Epic. The services of the talented national poet Kadyr Rahim’s (1936–1985) were great. Sherna Beknazar’s son, Mardonaqul Avliyoqul’s son, Umir Safar’s son, Normurod bakhshi, Ahmad bakhshi, Nurali Boymat’s son, Mamadrayim bakhshi, Yusuf Otagan’s son, Eshqobil bakhshi, Qodir Rahim’s son are the great representatives of this school. Today, many poets such as Khushbok Mardonakulov, Shoberdi Boltaev, Boborahim Mamatmurodov, Qora and Chori Umirov, Qahhor Qodir’s son, Abdunazar Poyonov, Shodmonbakhshi, Ilhombakhshi, Muhammadibakhshi, Safarbakhshi, Zulhumor bakhshi continue the Sherabad school of epic poetry. Epics such as “Golden Pumpkin” (Oltin qovoq), “Malla Savdogar”, “Zayidqul”, “Ollonazar Olchinbek”, “Oychinor”, “Sherali”, “Kelinoy” were written by the representatives of this school.
The art of the Khorezm school of epics differs from other schools of epics in style. Khorezmian epics have a written source, and sometimes the narrator also had a text in his hand, in which music played a leading role, and more romantic epics were recited. Child caregiver – Kurbannazar Abdullaev has made a great contribution to the development of the Khorezm school of epic poetry. The great representatives of this school are Ruzimbek Murodov, Otakhon Matyakubov, Ruzimboy Normatov – Kalandar bakhshi, Norbek, Matnazar, and Etmishboy Abdullaev, from whom such epics as “Oshiq Garib”, “Oshiq Mahmud”, “Khirmondali”, “Baziryon”, “Avazhon” were written.
Jiyen Jirau (son of Amanlik, 1730–1784), a great representative of the Karakalpak school of classical bakhshi, sang the epics “The Great Mountain” (“Ulli taw”) and “Posqan El”. He also wrote the epics of Berdakh Kargaboy oglu (1827–1900) “Aydos biy”, “Omongeldi”, “Ernazar biy”, Utesh Alshinbay’s son (1828 1902), Kulmurat Qurban’s son (1845–1926), Kurbanbay Tadjibayev (1876–1958), Like Omar Sugirimbet’s son, the great representatives of the Karakalpak school of epic poetry sang. Bakhshi and jyraus such as Gairat Utemuratov, Tenelbay Kalliev, Gulnara Allambergenova, Ziyada Sheripova, Bakbergen Sirimbetov, Gulbahor Ahimbetova are todayıs creators of the Karakalpak school of bakhshi.
The first International Festival of Bakhshi Art was held in Termez from April 5th to 10th, 2019. The festival was attended by about 200 guests from 74 countries, including representatives of culture and art, folklore scholars, and the media from major countries such as the United States, Germany, France, Russia, China, Japan, Turkey and South Korea. The scientific-practical conference in Termez on April 6-7 was attended by scientists and experts in the field of poetry and epic poetry, including scientists from 15 foreign countries and 16 local folklorists. It was noted that the conference was attended by the most experienced experts from Bulgaria, Iran, Korea, Moldova, Russia, Turkey, France, and neighboring countries.
Minister of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan Aristanbek Muhammedi oglu, Minister of Culture of the Republic of Tajikistan Shamsiddin Orumbekzoda, Adviser to the President of the Kyrgyz Republic Sultan Raev, Minister of Culture and Information of the Kyrgyz Republic, Minister of Culture and Information of the Kyrgyz Republic Kayrat Imonaliev, Governor of Balkh Province of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ishaq Rahguzar, UNESCO Director for Cultural Affairs Najib Rhiati Salih, UNESCO Director-General Andrei Chevelov and representatives of Burkina Faso, Uganda, and Kuwait at UNESCO. More than 50,000 people visit the festival and its cultural events every day.
Commenting on these processes, President Mirziyoyev said: “The fact that we have organized and held high-level international conferences, bakhshi, and national handicraft festivals has played an important role in promoting the New Uzbekistan to the world. New Uzbekistan has become a country with strong potential, a worthy reputation, a prosperous and prosperous country in all respects [5: 65]. To further develop the effective factor of international cultural cooperation, great practical work is being done.
To consider the issue of inclusion in the representative list of the intangible cultural heritage of mankind, in cooperation with relevant agencies and organizations, experts, and scientists, all necessary documents and materials on the art of bakhshi in Uzbekistan were prepared and sent to UNESCO Headquarters. Measures are being taken to include the national art of bakhshi in the UNESCO list of intangible cultural heritage [6: 2].
A list of about 310 bakhshis working in the country has been formed. Also, in cooperation with the National Television and Radio Company of Uzbekistan, the transfer of epics performed by bakhshis stored in the television and radio archives from magnetic tapes to modern formats such as CDs and CVDs. To date, audio discs of epics performed by 20 bakhshis have been prepared. The epics in this audio recording are being put down on paper and brochures are being prepared. So far, 10 epics have been made into a book [7: 4].
Following the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated April 10th, 2021 “Additional measures to create favorable conditions for the preparation and development of the II International Festival of Bakhshi” II International Festival of Bakhshi was held in Nukus from September 17th to 20th, 2021. The II International Festival of Bakhshi Art in Nukus was attended by more than 100 bakhshis, akyns, and zhyrovs, art groups from 22 countries. The effectiveness of this festival in the development of international cultural cooperation has been extremely high. This was also noted by the participants of the event.
For example, our guest from the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) of the Russian Federation, 1st place winner Yuliana Krivoshapkina shared her impressions: “I came to Karakalpakstan and learned a lot. I liked the folklore works. Here, on stage, we watched excerpts from epics. I am very happy that the jury found me the winner. I wish our friendship to last forever. The participants of the international conference called the cultural event, which was full of interesting impressions from each other, “Legends resurrected on the Great Silk Road” [8: 6].
Indeed, the art of gardening is a tried and tested method and factor of international cooperation not only in the field of culture and education but also in tourism, economics, and science.
At the same time, a list of bakhshi, akin and jyraus operating in the republic over the past three or four years has been formed, and now there are more than 310 of them. 120 people in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, 7 people in Bukhara region, 4 people in Jizzakh region, 55 people in Kashkadarya region, 15 people in Navoi region, 1 person in Namangan region, 11 people in Samarkand region, 2 people in Syrdarya region, 60 people in Surkhandarya region, 4 people in Tashkent region, 1 person in Fergana region, 3 people in Tashkent city, 27 people in Khorezm region. Forty-five percent of the bakhshi are young. In the Republic of Karakalpakstan and the regions, out of 34 bakhshi, 22 are bakhshi of Uzbekistan, 3 are bakhshi of Karakalpakstan, 2 are bakhshi of Karakalpakstan, and 7 young bakhshi are winners of the Nihol award [9: 347].
If we look at the statistics of 2021, 19 children in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, 9 in Bukhara region, 7 in Jizzakh region, 5 in Navoi region, 8 in Samarkand region, 14 in Surkhandarya region, 18 in Khorezm region, 20 in Kashkadarya region in the field of bakhshi, a total of 1,589 students are taught in music and art schools.
The total number of teachers teaching bakhshi in children’s music and art schools is 242, of which 23% are higher, 65% are secondary special and 12% are secondary education. Of course, such problems have been addressed on time, quotas for admission to higher education institutions in the field of culture and arts have been increased, and new universities have been established.
The widespread promotion, study, preservation, and development of the art of bakhshi, which is a unique jargon of folk art, is one of the most pressing tasks today. Due to the International Festival of Bakhshi, the prestige of bakhshi-poets and jyraus will increase not only in Uzbekistan but also in the international arena. The desire of the peoples of the world to cooperate scientifically and creatively with the new Uzbekistan in the field of culture and education is growing. The art of bakhshi is now recognized in the new Uzbekistan as the most influential and effective method and factor of international cultural cooperation.
Through these festivals, the interest of the world community in the national culture of the peoples of Central Asia has taken on a new dimension. In particular, the positive effect of such reforms, in the words of President Mirziyoyev: “Our main goal is to turn Central Asia into a prosperous and sustainable developing, a place of trust and friendship.” Therefore, we need to do effective work to further glorify and promote the art of bakhshi and epic to the world.
- I would like to make a few suggestions for the further development of the art of bakhshi and epic:
- Publication of a series of books on the life and work of bakhshi “Ustoz bakhshi” and the creation of an explanatory dictionary “Bakhshi of New Uzbekistan”, which contains information about the history, traditions, and representatives of the leading epic schools;
- The history of the art of bakhshi for students of children’s music and art schools and specialized schools of culture and art "The art of bakhshi in Uzbekistan", “History of regional schools of bakhshi”, “Historical, heroic epics”, “Khorezm school of epic art”, “Karakalpak” creation of textbooks, recommendations, and textbooks, such as “Bakhshi-Jyrau School”;
- Organizing scientific expeditions to study the life and work of Bulungur, Nurata, Kurgan, Shakhrisabz, Kamay, Narpay, Sherabad bakhshi school, Khorezm dastan school, Karakalpak bakhshi-jyrau schools and their activities and representatives in cooperation with local khakimiyats;
- Establishment of special workshops for the production of national musical instruments related to the art of bakhshi, based on the specifics of the regions and the style of performance of bakhshi;
- Due to the lack of teachers in the field of bakhshi and epics, in cooperation with the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan to hold a competition (casting) among 323 teachers of music and art schools to familiarize them with the scientific and theoretical sources of bakhshi and epics to improve their professional skills. arranging monthly internships;
- In cooperation with the “Uzbekkino” National Agency and the Karakalpak Film Studio, it is possible to create documentaries, popular science, and feature films dedicated to the life and work of famous poets.
The efforts of the head of our state to promote the art of bakhshi at the international level create all the necessary conditions for the world to sing the inexhaustible melodies of our ancient history and demonstrate the unique style and features of this unique art. In the future, the people of the world will listen to the melody of our drums, songs praising the exemplary and wise ideas of humanity in our epics. We are sure that only the people will enjoy the unique melody of the dutar, which bestows goodness, and the rare masterpieces of folklore, which lead a person to perfection with the high skill of bakhshi.
- Address of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh. Mirziyoyev to the Oliy Majlis. - Tashkent, Image 2020. 62 Pages
- Durdona tones. Gas. Literature and art of Uzbekistan. March 30, 2018. № 14.
- Newspaper. New Uzbekistan. September 18, 2021. № 187 (443), 2 pages.
- Business card of our national culture. Newspaper. New Uzbekistan. November 7, 2020, issue 214
- New Uzbekistan is becoming a country of democratic change, broad opportunities and practical work. Tashkent - 2021. Printing house of “Teacher” LLC. 65 pages.
- Newspaper. New Uzbekistan. September 18, 2021. № 187 (443), 2 pages.
- Inextinguishable tones of our ancient history. Gas. Culture. January 31, 2019, No. №5
- Newspaper. New Uzbekistan. September 22, 2021. № 189 (445), 6 pages.
- Kholmominov M. From the collection of articles of the Republican scientific-theoretical conference “Actual problems of art and culture: traditions and modern trends”. Tashkent-2021.